As indigenous peoples in Latin America have achieved greater prominence and power, international agencies have attempted to incorporate the agendas of indigenous movements into development policymaking and project implementation. Transnational networks and policies centered on ethnically aware development paradigms have emerged with the goal of supporting indigenous cultures while enabling indigenous peoples to access the ostensible benefits of economic globalization and institutionalized participation. Focused on Bolivia and Ecuador, Indigenous Development in the Andes is a nuanced examination of the complexities involved in designing and executing "culturally appropriate" development agendas. Robert Andolina, Nina Laurie, and Sarah A. Radcliffe illuminate a web of relations among indigenous villagers, social movement leaders, government officials, NGO workers, and staff of multilateral agencies such as the World Bank.The authors argue that this reconfiguration of development policy and practice permits Ecuadorian and Bolivian indigenous groups to renegotiate their relationship to development as subjects who contribute and participate. Yet it also recasts indigenous peoples and their cultures as objects of intervention and largely fails to address fundamental concerns of indigenous movements, including racism, national inequalities, and international dependencies. Andean indigenous peoples are less marginalized, but they face ongoing dilemmas of identity and agency as their fields of action cross national boundaries and overlap with powerful institutions. Focusing on the encounters of indigenous peoples with international development as they negotiate issues related to land, water, professionalization, and gender, Indigenous Development in the Andes offers a comprehensive analysis of the diverse consequences of neoliberal development, and it underscores crucial questions about globalization, governance, cultural identity, and social movements.
Robert Andolina is Assistant Professor of International Studies at Seattle University. Nina Laurie is Professor of Development and Environment in the School of Geography, Politics, and Sociology at Newcastle University. She is an author of Geographies of New Femininities. Sarah A. Radcliffe is Reader in Latin American Geography at the University of Cambridge. She is the editor of the journal Progress in Human Geography and an editor of several collections, including Culture and Development in a Globalizing World.
List of Maps and Tables vii Acknowledgments ix Introduction: Indigenous Development in the Andes 1 1. Development, Transnational Networks, and Indigenous Politics 23 2. Development-with-Identity: Social Capital and Andean Culture 53 3. Development in Place: Ethnic Culture in the Transnational Local 80 4. Neoliberalisms, Transnational Water Politics, and Indigenous People 125 5. Transnational Professionalization of Indigenous Actors and Knowledge 157 6. Gender, Transnationalism, and Cultures of Development 195 Conclusion: Transnationalism, Development, and Culture in Theory and Practice 223 Appendix 1: Methodology and Research Design 247 Appendix 2: Development-Agency Initiatives for Andean Indigenous Peoples, 1990-2002 249 Appendix 3: Professional Biographies of Teachers in Interculturalism 253 Acronyms and Abbreviations 257 Notes 263 Bibliography 297 Index 335