Induced Resistance for Plant Defense: A Sustainable Approach to Crop Protection

Induced Resistance for Plant Defense: A Sustainable Approach to Crop Protection

By: Dr. Gary D. Lyon (editor), Dr. Adrian C. Newton (editor), Prof. Dale R. Walters (editor)Hardback

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Description

Induced resistance offers the prospect of broad spectrum, long-lasting and potentially environmentally-benign disease and pest control in plants. Induced Resistance for Plant Defense 2e provides a comprehensive account of the subject, encompassing the underlying science and methodology, as well as research on application of the phenomenon in practice. The second edition of this important book includes updated coverage of cellular aspects of induced resistance, including signalling and defenses, costs and trade-offs associated with the expression of induced resistance, research aimed at integrating induced resistance into crop protection practice, and induced resistance from a commercial perspective. Current thinking on how beneficial microbes induce resistance in plants has been included in the second edition. The 14 chapters in this book have been written by internationally-respected researchers and edited by three editors with considerable experience of working on induced resistance. Like its predecessor, the second edition of Induced Resistance for Plant Defense will be of great interest to plant pathologists, plant cell and molecular biologists, agricultural scientists, crop protection specialists, and personnel in the agrochemical industry. All libraries in universities and research establishments where biological, agricultural, horticultural and forest sciences are studied and taught should have copies of this book on their shelves.

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About Author

Dale Walters is based at the Crop and Soil Systems Research Group, Scotland's Rural College (SRUC), Edinburgh, UK, where he is Professor of Plant Pathology. Adrian Newton is based at the James Hutton Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee, UK, and is also Visiting Professor of Cereal Pathology at SRUC (Scotland's Rural College, UK). Until recently, Gary Lyon was based at the James Hutton Institute in Dundee, UK.

Contents

Contributors xiii Preface to Second Edition xvii Preface to First Edition xix 1 Introduction: Definitions and Some History 1 Ray Hammerschmidt 1.1 Induced Resistance: An Established Phenomenon 1 1.2 Terminology and Types of Induced Resistance 2 1.2.1 Local and systemic induction of resistance 2 1.2.2 Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and induced systemic resistance (ISR) 2 1.2.3 Protection 3 1.2.4 Cross protection 3 1.2.5 Priming 4 1.3 A Little History 4 1.3.1 Early reports 4 1.3.2 Developments leading towards today s state of knowledge 5 1.4 It s All About Interactions 7 1.5 Acknowledgements 8 References 8 2 Agents That Can Elicit Induced Resistance 11 Gary D. Lyon 2.1 Introduction 11 2.2 Compounds Inducing Resistance 12 2.2.1 Acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) 12 2.2.2 Adipic acid 12 2.2.3 Algal extracts 12 2.2.4 Alkamides 12 2.2.5 Allose 13 2.2.6 Antibiotics 13 2.2.7 Azelaic acid 13 2.2.8 DL-3-Aminobutyric acid (BABA) 13 2.2.9 Benzothiadiazole (BTH) and other synthetic resistance inducers 14 2.2.10 Bestcure(R) 15 2.2.11 Brassinolide 15 2.2.12 -1,4 Cellodextrins 15 2.2.13 Chitin 15 2.2.14 Chitosan 16 2.2.15 Cholic acid 16 2.2.16 Curdlan sulfate 17 2.2.17 Dehydroabietinal 17 2.2.18 3,5-Dichloroanthranilic acid (DCA) 17 2.2.19 Dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA) 17 2.2.20 Dimethyl disulfide 17 2.2.21 Dufulin 17 2.2.22 Ergosterol 17 2.2.23 Ethylene 17 2.2.24 Fatty acids and lipids 18 2.2.25 2-(2-Fluoro-6-nitrobenzylsulfanyl)pyridine-4-carbothioamide 18 2.2.26 Fructooligosaccharide 18 2.2.27 Fungicides 18 2.2.28 Galactinol 19 2.2.29 Grape marc 19 2.2.30 Glucans 19 2.2.31 Harpin 20 2.2.32 Hexanoic acid 20 2.2.33 Imprimatin 20 2.2.34 INF1 elicitin 21 2.2.35 Jasmonates and related compounds 21 2.2.36 Cis-jasmone 21 2.2.37 Laminarin 21 2.2.38 Lipids/fatty acids 21 2.2.39 Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) 22 2.2.40 Nitric oxide 22 2.2.41 Oligo-carrageenans 22 2.2.42 Oligogalacturonides (OGAs) 22 2.2.43 Oligoglucuronans 23 2.2.44 Oxalate 23 2.2.45 Phosphite 23 2.2.46 Phytogard(R) 23 2.2.47 Pipecolic acid 23 2.2.48 Plant extracts 23 2.2.49 Probenazole (PBZ) 24 2.2.50 Proteins and peptides 24 2.2.51 Psicose 26 2.2.52 Rhamnolipids 26 2.2.53 Saccharin 26 2.2.54 Salicylic acid 26 2.2.55 Silicon 27 2.2.56 Spermine 27 2.2.57 Sphingolipids 27 2.2.58 Sulfated fucan oligosaccharides 27 2.2.59 Tiadinil 27 2.2.60 Vitamins 27 2.2.61 Volatile organic compounds 28 2.3 Redox Regulation 28 2.3.1 Factors affecting efficacy 29 2.4 Elicitor Combinations and Synergism 29 2.5 Assays 30 2.6 Conclusions 30 References 31 3 Transcriptome Analysis of Induced Resistance 41 Brendan Kidd, Kemal Kazan and Peer M. Schenk 3.1 Introduction 41 3.2 The Impact of Arabidopsis thaliana on Induced Resistance 42 3.3 Techniques Used for Studying Gene Expression 42 3.3.1 EST sequencing 42 3.3.2 Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) 42 3.3.3 cDNA microarrays and DNA chips 43 3.3.4 Novel insights into induced resistance revealed through microarray analysis 45 3.3.5 Systems biology and network approaches using microarrays 48 3.3.6 Next-generation sequencing 48 3.4 How Sequencing Helps Crop Research 50 3.4.1 Converting knowledge from model organisms to crop plants 50 3.5 Conclusion 51 3.6 Acknowledgements 52 References 52 4 Signalling Networks Involved in Induced Resistance 58 Corne M.J. Pieterse, Christos Zamioudis, Dieuwertje Van der Does and Saskia C.M. Van Wees 4.1 Introduction 58 4.2 The SA JA Backbone of the Plant Immune Signalling Network 59 4.2.1 Salicylic acid 60 4.2.2 Jasmonic acid 61 4.3 SA and JA: Important Signals in Systemically Induced Defence 63 4.3.1 Pathogen-induced SAR 63 4.3.2 ISR triggered by beneficial microbes 64 4.3.3 Rhizobacteria-ISR signal transduction 65 4.4 ISR and Priming for Enhanced Defence 66 4.4.1 Molecular mechanisms of priming 67 4.5 Hormonal Crosstalk During Induced Defence 68 4.5.1 Mechanisms of crosstalk between SA and JA signalling 69 4.5.2 Rewiring of the hormone signalling network by plant enemies 70 4.6 Outlook 71 4.7 Acknowledgements 71 References 72 5 Types and Mechanisms of Rapidly Induced Plant Resistance to Herbivorous Arthropods 81 Michael J. Stout 5.1 Introduction: Induced Resistance in Context 81 5.2 Comparison of the Threats Posed by Pathogens and Herbivores 83 5.3 Types of Induced Resistance 85 5.3.1 Hypersensitive responses 85 5.3.2 Direct induced resistance 86 5.3.3 Indirect induced resistance 88 5.3.4 Plant stress-induced resistance 90 5.3.5 Tolerance 91 5.3.6 Priming 91 5.3.7 Interplant signalling 92 5.3.8 Concurrent expression of multiple types of induced resistance 92 5.4 Establishing the Causal Basis of Induced Resistance 93 5.4.1 The complex causal basis of induced resistance 93 5.4.2 Approaches to understanding the causal basis of induced resistance 95 5.5 Arthropods as Dynamic Participants in Plant Arthropod Interactions 98 5.6 Summary and Conclusions 99 References 100 6 Mechanisms of Defence to Pathogens: Biochemistry and Physiology 106 Christophe Garcion, Olivier Lamotte, Jean-Luc Cacas and Jean-Pierre Metraux 6.1 Introduction 106 6.2 Structural Barriers 106 6.2.1 Early events: The cytoskeleton and traffic of vesicles 107 6.2.2 The nature of cell wall appositions 108 6.2.3 Lignification 109 6.3 Phytoalexins 109 6.3.1 The concept of phytoalexins 109 6.3.2 Distribution of phytoalexins among taxons and individuals 110 6.3.3 Biosynthetic pathways and their regulation 110 6.3.4 Role of the phytoalexins in the defence response 113 6.4 The Hypersensitive Response (HR) 115 6.4.1 In the death car en route to plant resistance to pathogens 115 6.4.2 The role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) 116 6.4.3 On the highway of hypersensitive cell death: Signalling and regulation 118 6.4.4 License to kill: Where do we stand on execution of hypersensitive cell death? 120 6.5 Antimicrobial Proteins or Defence-Related Proteins 122 6.5.1 Introduction 122 6.5.2 Use of PRs for crop protection: Current status 122 6.5.3 Other changes in the transcriptome related to pathogenesis 123 6.6 Conclusions 125 References 125 7 Induced Resistance in Natural Ecosystems and Pathogen Population Biology: Exploiting Interactions 137 Adrian C. Newton and Jorn Pons-Kuhnemann 7.1 Introduction 137 7.2 Environmental Variability 137 7.3 Ecology of the Plant Environment 139 7.4 Environmental Parameters 140 7.5 Plant and Pathogen Population Genetics 141 7.6 Consequences of Resistance Induction 143 7.7 Conclusions 144 7.8 Acknowledgements 145 References 145 8 Microbial Induction of Resistance to Pathogens 149 Dale R. Walters and Alison E. Bennett 8.1 Introduction 149 8.2 Resistance Induced by Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Fungi 149 8.2.1 PGPR 150 8.2.1.1 Spectrum of activity 150 8.2.1.2 Interactions between plant roots and PGPR 152 8.2.1.3 PGPR and plant growth 152 8.2.1.4 PGPR in the field 153 8.2.2 PGPF 155 8.3 Induction of Resistance by Biological Control Agents 155 8.4 Resistance Induced by Composts 157 8.5 Disease Control Provided by Endophytes 159 8.6 Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis and Induced Resistance 160 8.7 Acknowledgements 162 References 163 9 Trade-offs Associated with Induced Resistance 171 Martin Heil 9.1 Introduction 171 9.2 Resistance Inducers 172 9.2.1 Eliciting resistance to biotrophic pathogens 172 9.2.2 Eliciting resistance to necrotrophic pathogens and herbivores 174 9.2.3 Volatile elicitors 176 9.2.4 Priming 177 9.3 Costs of Induced Resistance 178 9.3.1 Allocation costs 179 9.3.2 Priming as cost-reducing mechanism 181 9.3.3 Ecological costs 182 9.3.4 Dependency on cultivars 183 9.3.5 Context dependency 183 9.4 Outlook 184 References 185 10 Topical Application of Inducers for Disease Control 193 Christine Tayeh, Ali Siah, Beatrice Randoux, Patrice Halama, Dale R. Walters and Philippe Reignault 10.1 Introduction 193 10.2 Biotic Inducers 193 10.2.1 Chitin and chitosan 196 10.2.2 Fragments and extracts of fungal cell walls 197 10.2.3 Extracts and materials derived from marine macroalgae 198 10.2.4 Lipids 198 10.3 Abiotic Inducers 198 10.3.1 Benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH)/acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) 199 10.3.1.1 Diseases caused by leaf and stem-infecting fungi 199 10.3.1.2 Diseases caused by oomycetes 201 10.3.1.3 Fungal soil-borne diseases 201 10.3.1.4 Fungal postharvest diseases 202 10.3.1.5 Diseases caused by bacteria, viruses and insects 203 10.3.2 Salicylic acid and structurally related compounds 205 10.3.2.1 Salicylic acid 205 10.3.2.2 SA derivatives 207 10.3.3 Proteins, peptides and amino acid-derived inducers 208 10.3.3.1 -aminobutyric acid (BABA) 208 10.3.3.2 Harpin 209 10.3.3.3 Other purified proteins 210 10.3.4 Lipids 211 10.3.4.1 Oxylipins 211 10.3.4.2 Fatty acids 214 10.3.5 Active oxygen species 214 10.3.6 Sugars 215 10.3.7 Phytohormones 215 10.3.8 Mineral and ions 216 10.3.8.1 Copper 216 10.3.8.2 Other minerals 216 10.3.8.3 Silicon 216 10.3.8.4 Calcium-based compounds 217 10.3.8.5 Other inducers 217 10.3.9 Vitamins 217 10.3.10 Physical treatments 218 10.4 Conclusions 218 10.5 Acknowledgements 218 References 219 11 How do Beneficial Microbes Induce Systemic Resistance? 232 Emily Beardon, Julie Scholes and Jurriaan Ton 11.1 Plant-Beneficial Microbes 232 11.2 The Plant Immune System as a Regulator of Plant Biotic Interactions 233 11.2.1 The plant innate immune system: Induced defence 234 11.2.2 The plant adaptive immune system: Priming of defence 235 11.3 How do Beneficial Microbes Cope with the Plant Immune System? 236 11.3.1 Evasion and suppression of plant immunity by rhizobia 236 11.3.2 Suppression of plant immunity by mycorrhizal fungi 237 11.3.3 Evasion and suppression of plant immunity by PGPR 238 11.4 The ISR Paradox: Local Suppression of Immunity Leads to Systemic Resistance 239 11.4.1 The hormone hypothesis 239 11.4.2 The autoregulation hypothesis 240 11.4.3 The sRNA hypothesis 241 11.5 Concluding Remarks and Future Directions 241 References 242 12 Implementation of Induced Resistance for Crop Protection 249 Tony Reglinski, Elizabeth Dann and Brian Deverall 12.1 Introduction 249 12.2 Induced Resistance for Disease Control 250 12.2.1 Commercially available activators for glasshouse, orchard and field crops 251 12.2.1.1 Acibenzolar-S-methyl 251 12.2.1.2 Tiadinil 253 12.2.1.3 Probenazole 253 12.2.1.4 Isotianil 253 12.2.1.5 Phosphite 254 12.2.1.6 Plant extracts 254 12.2.1.7 Polysaccharides 254 12.2.1.8 Harpin protein 255 12.2.1.9 Silicon 256 12.3 Induced Resistance for Postharvest Disease Control 257 12.4 Compatibility of Activators with Other Control Methods 260 12.4.1 Fungicides 260 12.4.2 Bactericides 262 12.4.3 Insecticides 263 12.4.4 Beneficial microorganisms 264 12.5 Influence of Genotype, Environment and Management Practices on Induced Resistance 266 12.6 Integration of Plant Activators in Crop Management 273 12.7 Challenges and Future Directions 276 12.8 Conclusions 281 References 282 13 Exploitation of Induced Resistance: A Commercial Perspective 300 Andy Leadbeater and Theo Staub 13.1 Introduction 300 13.2 Science and Serendipitous Discovery of Resistance-Inducing Compounds 301 13.3 Discovery of INAs and BTHs 302 13.4 Identification of BION(R) and other SAR Activators 303 13.5 The Role of Basic Studies in the Discovery of BION(R) and other SAR/ISR Products 304 13.6 Identification of Harpin 305 13.7 Extracts from Reynoutria sachalinensis 305 13.8 The Commercial Development of an Induced Resistance Product 306 13.9 Legislative Framework 308 13.10 Commercial Experiences with Induced Resistance Products 309 13.11 Conclusions 312 References 312 14 Induced Resistance in Crop Protection: The Future, Drivers and Barriers 316 Gary D. Lyon, Adrian C. Newton and Dale R. Walters 14.1 Introduction 316 14.2 Strategies to Increase Efficacy and Durability in the Field 317 14.3 What Research is Required to Make Induced Resistance Work in Practice? 318 14.4 Can We Breed Plants with Enhanced Responsiveness to Inducers? 321 14.5 The Potential for GM Plants Containing SAR-related Genes 321 14.6 Political, Economic and Legislation Issues 322 14.7 Conclusion 322 14.8 Acknowledgements 323 References 323 Index 327

Product Details

  • publication date: 17/10/2014
  • ISBN13: 9781118371831
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 352
  • ID: 9781118371831
  • weight: 836
  • ISBN10: 1118371836

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