It is easy to imagine the excitement that pervaded the neurological world in the late 1920's and early 1930's when Berger's first descriptions of the electro- encephalogram appeared. Berger was not the first to discover that changes in electric potential can be recorded from the surface of the head, but it was he who first systematized the method, and it was he who first proposed that explanatory correlations might be found between the electroencephalogram, brain processes, and behavioral states. An explosion of activity quickly fol- lowed: studies were made of the brain waves in virtually every conceivable behavioral state, ranging from normal human subjects to those with major psychoses or with epilepsy, to state changes such as the sleep-wakefulness transition. There evolved from this the discipline of Clinical Electroencepha- lography which rapidly took a valued place in clinical neurology and neuro- surgery. Moreover, use of the method in experimental animals led to a further understanding of such state changes as attention-inattention, arousal, and sleep and wakefulness.
The evoked potential method, derived from electro- encephalography, was used in neurophysiological research to construct pre- cise maps of the projection of sensory systems upon the neocortex. These maps still form the initial guides to studies of the cortical mechanisms in sensation and perception. The use of the event-related potential paradigm has proved useful in studies of the brain mechanisms of some cognitive functions of the brain.
to Induced Rhythms: A Widespread, Heterogeneous Class of Oscillations.- Oscillations in the Striate Cortex.- 1 Mechanisms Underlying the Generation of Neuronal Oscillations in Cat Visual Cortex.- 2 Stimulus-Specific Synchronizations in Cat Visual Cortex: Multiple Microelectrode and Correlation Studies from Several Cortical Areas.- Cortical Rhythms, Ongoing (EEG) and Induced (ERPs).- 3 The Rhythmic Slow Activity (Theta) of the Limbic Cortex: An Oscillation in Search of a Function.- 4 Is There any Message Hidden in the Human EEG?.- 5 Event-Related Synchronization and Desynchronization of Alpha and Beta Waves in a Cognitive Task.- 6 Magnetoencephalographic Evidence for Induced Rhythms.- 7 Rostrocaudal Scan in Human Brain: A Global Characteristic of the 40-Hz Response During Sensory Input.- 8 Evoked Potentials: Ensembles of Brain Induced Rhythmicities in the Alpha, Theta and Gamma Ranges.- 9 Predictions on Neocortical Dynamics Derived from Studies in Paleocortex.- 10 A Comparison of Certain Gamma Band (40-HZ) Brain Rhythms in Cat and Man.- 11 Human Visual Evoked Potentials: Induced Rhythms or Separable Components?.- Thalamic Oscillations.- 12 Network Properties of the Thalamic Clock: Role of Oscillatory Behavior in Mood Disorders.- 13 Mesopontine Cholinergic Systems Suppress Slow Rhythms and Induce Fast Oscillations in Thalamocortical Circuits.- 14 Oscillations in CNS Neurons: A Possible Role for Cortical Interneurons in the Generation of 40-Hz Oscillations.- Cellular and Subcellular Mechanisms Based on Invertebrate and Simple Systems.- 15 Modification of Oscillator Function by Electrical Coupling to Nonoscillatory Neurons.- 16 Biological Timing: Circadian Oscillations, Cell Division, and Pulsatile Secretion.- 17 Comparison of Electrical Oscillations in Neurons with Induced or Spontaneous Cellular Rhythms due to Biochemical Regulation.- 18 Signal Functions of Brain Electrical Rhythms and their Modulation by External Electromagnetic Fields.- Theories and Models.- 19 Inhibitory Interneurons can Rapidly Phase-Lock Neural Populations.- 20 The Problem of Neural Integration: Induced Rhythms and Short-Term Correlations.- 21 Flexible Linking of Visual Features by Stimulus-Related Synchronizations of Model Neurons.- 22 Synergetics of the Brain: An Outline of Some Basic Ideas.- Epilogue.- Brain Natural Frequencies are Causal Factors for Resonances and Induced Rhythms.
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