Despite the fact that more than 90% of production processes in industry are catalyzed, most chemists and engineers are restricted to trial and error when searching for the proper catalyst. This book is the first emphasizing industrial aspects of catalysis and also particularly well suited to studying on one's own. It is dedicated to both, homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis and in this second, edition biocatalysis, electrocatalysis, photocatalysis and asymmetric catalysis are also included; topics like zeolites, metals and olefin catalysis are now discussed in more detail. The book aids practically oriented readers in becoming familiar with the processes of catalyst development and testing and therefore deals with aspects of test planning, optimization and reactor modeling and simulation with the easy-to-learn PC program POLYMATH. Well over 100 exercises help to test and consolidate the gained knowledge.
Jens Hagen completed his first degree in chemical engineering in Essen, before studying chemistry at the RWTH Aachen. He gained his doctorate in 1975 in the field of catalysis and high-pressure synthesis. Following a period in industry at Henkel KGaA, Dusseldorf, he was appointed Professor of Technical Chemistry at Mannheim University of Applied Sciences in 1979. In addition, he has been head of the Steinbeis Transfer Center for Process Engineering, Biotechnology and Environmental Techniques since 1985, and holds vocational training seminars. Professor Hagen's teaching and research at the faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering focuses on chemical reaction engineering and technical catalysis.
Preface to the Second Edition. Preface to the First Edition. Abbreviations. 1 Introduction. 1.1 The Phenomenon Catalysis. 1.2 Mode of Action of Catalysts. 1.3 Classification of Catalysts. 1.4 Comparison of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis. 2 Homogeneous Catalysis with Transition Metal Catalysts. 2.1 Key Reactions in Homogeneous Catalysis. 2.2 Catalyst Concepts in Homogeneous Catalysis. 2.3 Characterization of Homogeneous Catalysts. 3 Homogeneously Catalyzed Industrial Processes. 3.1 Overview. 3.2 Examples of Industrial Processes. 3.3 Asymmetric Catalysis. 4 Biocatalysis. 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Kinetics of Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions. 4.3 Industrial Processes with Biocatalysts. 5 Heterogeneous Catalysis: Fundamentals. 5.1 Individual Steps in Heterogeneous Catalysis. 5.2 Kinetics and Mechanisms of Heterogeneously Catalyzed Reactions. 5.3 Catalyst Concepts in Heterogeneous Catalysis. 5.4 Catalyst Performance. 5.5 Catalyst Deactivation and Regeneration. 5.6 Characterization of Heterogeneous Catalysts. 6 Catalyst Shapes and Production of Heterogeneous Catalysts. 6.1 Catalyst Production. 6.2 Immobilization of Homogeneous Catalysts. 7 Shape-Selective Catalysis: Zeolites. 7.1 Composition and Structure of Zeolites. 7.2 Production of Zeolites. 7.3 Catalytic Properties of the Zeolites. 7.4 Isomorphic Substitution of Zeolites. 7.5 Metal-Doped Zeolites. 7.6 Applications of Zeolites. 8 Heterogeneously Catalyzed Processes in Industry. 8.1 Overview. 8.2 Examples of Industrial Processes - Bulk Chemicals. 8.3 Fine Chemicals Manufacture. 9 Electrocatalysis. 9.1 Comparison Between Electrocatalysis and Heterogeneous Catalysis. 9.2 Electrochemical Reactions and Electrode Kinetics. 9.3 Electrocatalytic Processes. 9.4 Electrocatalysis in Fuel Cells. 10 Environmental Catalysis and Green Chemistry. 10.1 Automotive Exhaust Catalysis. 10.2 NOx Removal Systems. 10.3 Catalytic Afterburning. 10.4 Green Chemistry and Catalysis. 11 Photocatalysis. 11.1 Basic Principles. 11.2 Photoreduction and Oxidation of Water. 11.3 Photocleavage of Water. 11.4 Other Reactions. 12 Phase-Transfer Catalysis. 12.1 Definition. 12.2 Catalysts for PTC. 12.3 Mechanism and Benefits of PTC. 12.4 PTC Reactions. 12.5 Selected Industrial Processes with PTC. 13 Planning, Development, and Testing of Catalysts. 13.1 Stages of Catalyst Development. 13.2 An Example of Catalyst Planning: Conversion of Olefins to Aromatics. 13.3 Selection and Testing of Catalysts in Practice. 14 Catalysis Reactors. 14.1 Two-Phase Reactors. 14.2 Three-Phase Reactors. 14.3 Reactors for Homogeneously Catalyzed Reactions. 15 Economic Importance of Catalysts. 16 Future Development of Catalysis. 16.1 Homogeneous Catalysis. 16.2 Heterogeneous Catalysis. Solutions to the Exercises. References. Subject Index.