Industrial Product Design of Solids and Liquids: A Practical Guide

Industrial Product Design of Solids and Liquids: A Practical Guide

By: Wilfried Rahse (author)Hardback

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Description

Offering invaluable insights from a chemist with over 35 years experience in the industry, this practical guide incorporates numerous practical examples and case studies to explain the concepts included here. The author explains the processes involved in product design, how to set up experiments, and ultimately how to scale-up. Among the host of topics covered is a discussion of recent advances in the fundamentals and innovative technologies leading to new and improved products. Industrial Product Design of Solids and Liquids: A Practical Guide is essential reading for the pharmaceutical, cosmetics and personal care, food, fragrance, paints, plastics and agricultural industries.

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About Author

Dr. Wilfried Rahse has been Partner of a start-up (ATS License GmbH) for several years and is responsible for the scientific development of formulations and production processes of novel cosmeceuticals. Previously, Dr. Raehse worked at Henkel AG & Co. KGaA as director in the field of process development. The focus of his activities for washing, cleaning and skin care products were product design, the development of innovative processes and products for the future and the downstream processing of enzymes. His ideas and works led to large production facilities, such as the processing of enzymes, the steam drying in a spray tower and the Megaperls?, a washing powder in form of spheres. Dr. Raehse studied at the Technical University of Berlin chemistry and chemical engineering. He completed his PhD under the supervision of Prof. Dr. Dr. H. Koelbel in 1976. After a period as an assistant (1971 to 1977) at the College followed a 30-year industry activity at HENKEL in process development, but also in the production and in the environmental technology. Dr. Raehse has written many articles and a book (2007) on product design. He holds academic lectures and lecture at universities and at conferences about the optimization of products and processes, including chemical and engineering aspects

Contents

Preface XIII 1 Chemical Product Design a New Approach in Product and Process Development 1 Summary 1 1.1 Definitions 1 1.2 Customer Involvement 3 1.3 Specifications 8 1.4 Tasks of Development Team 8 1.5 Steering of Projects 11 1.6 Learnings 13 References 13 2 Diversity of Product Design 15 Summary 15 2.1 General Remarks 15 2.2 Customizable Developments 16 2.3 Foodstuffs 18 2.4 Chemicals 20 2.5 Cosmetics and Pharmaceuticals 22 2.6 Polymers and Plastics 24 2.7 Ceramic Industry 27 2.8 Packaging 27 2.9 Brand 28 2.10 Learnings 30 3 Generation and Assessment of Ideas for Novel Products 31 Summary 31 3.1 Innovation 31 3.2 Implementation of a Product Idea 32 3.3 Project Success (Some Personal Reflections on the People Involved) 32 3.4 Generation of Innovations 34 3.5 Evaluation of Product Ideas 37 3.6 Learnings 38 References 38 4 Compressed Development and Implementation of Innovations 39 Summary 39 4.1 Preliminary Remarks 39 4.2 Reasons for an Accelerated Product Development 40 4.3 Risks 41 4.4 Barriers in Development Projects 42 4.5 History 43 4.6 Compressed Project Processing 43 4.7 Project Leadership 45 4.8 Teamwork in Projects 47 4.9 Conditions for Success of Compressed Project Work 48 4.10 Design of Production Plant 49 4.11 Biotechnology 51 4.12 Maximum Speed-to-Market (Examples) 52 4.13 Relationship between Compressed Development and Product Design 54 4.14 Outlook 54 4.15 Learnings 55 References 55 5 Product Design of Particles 57 Summary 57 5.1 Dry Agglomeration Processes: Pelleting and Tableting 57 5.2 Wet Agglomeration Process: Granulation 64 5.2.1 Definition of Granulation 64 5.2.2 Tasks of Granulation 65 5.2.3 Theoretical Basics 67 5.2.4 Mechanisms of Granulation 69 5.2.5 Industrial Granulation 73 5.2.6 Scale-Up 77 5.2.7 Applications 79 5.2.8 Design of Particles by Granulation 81 5.3 Learnings 86 References 87 6 Product Design of Particles by Coatings 91 Summary 91 6.1 Processes for Setting the Product Design of Particles 91 6.2 Opportunities for Influencing Particle Design 92 6.3 Tasks of Coatings 95 6.4 Basic Variants of Coating 99 6.5 Coating Technologies 107 6.6 Learnings 117 References 118 7 Product Design Out of Disperse and Continuous Phases by Crushing 119 Summary 119 7.1 Breaking Up of Materials 119 7.2 Importance of Crushing Processes 121 7.3 Particle Properties by Breaking Up 122 7.4 Variants of Crushing 126 7.4.1 Grinding of Solids 128 7.4.2 Deagglomeration 131 7.4.3 Split Up Sensitive Materials in a Cold Milling Process 132 7.4.4 Milling of Suspended Solids 132 7.4.5 Breaking Down and Transforming of Liquids into Dispersed Solids 133 7.4.6 Splitting with Simultaneous Absorbing/Reaction 133 7.5 Processes for Crushing of Materials 133 7.5.1 Equipment for Grinding of Disperse Dry Raw Materials 134 7.5.2 Equipment for Grinding of Disperse Raw Materials in Liquid Phases 137 7.5.3 Breaking Up of Materials in Combination with Drying Methods 142 7.6 Energy Requirements 144 7.7 Determination of Product Design via Specifications 147 7.8 Design of Products by Breaking-Up Processes 148 7.8.1 Determination of Particle Properties for Solids 149 7.8.2 Solids from Melting 150 7.9 Product Design Out of Multistep Processes (Examples) 151 7.9.1 Powders from Molten Metals 151 7.9.2 Powdered Metals for Metallic Paints 153 7.9.3 Reinforcing Materials and Fillers for Polymers 154 7.10 Consequences 155 7.11 Learnings 156 References 156 8 Product Design Out of Continuous Phases by Spray Drying and Crystallization 159 Summary 159 8.1 Importance of Spray Drying 159 8.2 Basics of Atomization and Drying 161 8.2.1 Atomizing with Nozzles 161 8.2.2 Description of Drying and Structure Formation 161 8.2.3 Industrial Spray Drying 163 8.3 Spray Drying Plants and Plant Safety 164 8.4 Improved Capacity and Energy Consumption 169 8.5 Influencing the Product Design 176 8.5.1 Choice of Atomizer and of Operating Mode 179 8.5.2 Material Dependence of Particle Design 180 8.5.3 Agglomeration of Droplets and Particles 184 8.5.4 Recirculation of Coarse Particles and Dust 184 8.6 Scale-Up of Spray Dryers 187 8.7 Exhausted Air and Waste Water 189 8.8 Spray Agglomeration 190 8.9 Crystallization/Precipitation 192 8.10 Learnings 194 References 195 9 Manufacturing of Application-Related Designed Plastic Products 197 Summary 197 9.1 Polymers 197 9.2 Importance of Plastics 199 9.3 Task 201 9.4 Product Design for Plastics 202 9.4.1 Polymer Engineering 202 9.4.2 Polymer Design 205 9.4.3 Polymer Shaping 208 9.5 Polymers in Detergent Formulations 211 9.5.1 Cobuilder 211 9.5.2 Inhibitors (Graying, Color Transfer, Foam, and Dirt) 212 9.5.3 Excipients and Starches 213 9.6 Plastics in Detergent Industry 213 9.6.1 Packaging 213 9.6.2 Polyvinyl Alcohol as Packaging Material 218 9.7 Shape and Function 222 9.8 Learnings 223 References 224 10 Production of Tailor-Made Enzymes for Detergents 225 Summary 225 10.1 Product Design in Biotechnology 225 10.2 History 226 10.3 Enzymes 228 10.3.1 Enzymes as Part of White Biotechnology 228 10.3.2 Enzymes as Catalysts of Metabolism in Living Cells 230 10.3.3 Structure of Enzymes 231 10.4 Enzymes in Detergents 232 10.4.1 Significance 232 10.4.2 Optimizations of Production Strain 233 10.5 Industrial Manufacture of Proteases 235 10.5.1 Materials for the Plant 236 10.5.2 Three-Step Process 236 10.5.3 Fermentation 238 10.5.4 Downstream Processing of Fermentation Broths 239 10.5.5 Manufacturing of Enzyme Granules 242 10.6 Workplace Safety 248 10.7 Product Design of Enzymes 249 10.8 Learnings 250 References 251 11 Design of Solid Laundry Detergents According to Consumer Requirements 253 Summary 253 11.1 Market Products in Germany 253 11.2 Identification and Consideration of Customer Needs 255 11.3 History of Laundry Washing 258 11.4 Washing Process 259 11.5 Recipe 265 11.6 Design of Finished Products 267 11.7 Manufacturing Processes 270 11.7.1 Drying in Spray Towers for Customary Powders 271 11.7.2 Combined Spraying with Compacting Processes for Concentrates 273 11.7.3 Non-Tower Method 274 11.8 Novel Manufacturing Method for Granules 277 11.9 Economic Considerations 280 11.10 Outlook 281 11.11 Learnings 283 References 283 12 Product Design of Liquids 285 Summary 285 12.1 Introduction 285 12.2 Water-Based Liquids 286 12.3 Water-Insoluble Liquids (Example: Perfume Oils) 290 12.3.1 History of Perfume Oils 290 12.3.2 Perfumes 291 12.3.3 Extraction of Fragrances 294 12.3.4 Chemical Composition of Natural Fragrances 298 12.3.5 Possibilities in Product Design of Perfume Oils 299 12.3.6 Emulsions 302 12.3.7 Scented Solids 303 12.3.8 Neuromarketing 306 12.3.9 Perfume Oil for Space Fragrancing 306 12.3.10 Perfume Oils for Detergents 307 12.3.11 Manufacture of Fragrance Beads 311 12.3.12 Personal Care and Other Products 313 12.3.13 Safety 314 12.4 Learnings 316 References 316 13 Design of Skin Care Products 319 Summary 319 13.1 History of Cosmetics 319 13.2 Regulations of Cosmetic Products 320 13.3 Product Design 322 13.4 Skin Care 324 13.4.1 Cosmetic Products for Beautification 325 13.4.2 Active Cosmetics for Healthy Skin 326 13.4.3 Differences between Cosmeceuticals and Drugs 327 13.4.4 Natural Cosmetics Label 329 13.5 Emulsions 330 13.5.1 Basics (Definition, Structure, and Classification) 330 13.5.2 Stability of Emulsions 333 13.5.3 Preparation of Emulsions in the Laboratory 335 13.6 Structure of Skin Care Creams 336 13.6.1 Excipients 336 13.6.2 Preservations 338 13.6.3 Additives 340 13.6.4 Cosmetic Active Ingredients 341 13.6.5 Typical Effects of Cosmetics 341 13.7 Essential Active Substances from a Medical Point of View 341 13.7.1 Linoleic and Linolenic 344 13.7.2 Urea 344 13.7.3 Panthenol 344 13.8 Penetration into the Skin 345 13.8.1 Skin Structure 345 13.8.2 Applying the Emulsion 346 13.8.3 Proof of Performance 346 13.8.4 Penetration of Lipophilic Substances 348 13.9 Targeted Product Design in the Course of Development 351 13.10 Production of Skin Care Products 353 13.11 Bottles and Prices of Cosmetic Creams 362 13.12 Design of all Elements 365 13.13 Learnings 366 References 367 14 Influencing the Product Design by Chemical Reactions and the Manufacturing Process 371 Summary 371 14.1 General Remarks 371 14.2 Elements of the Manufacturing Process 372 14.3 Raw Materials and Synthesis Routes 373 14.4 Chemical Reactor and Reaction Sequence 375 14.5 Entire Procedure 380 14.6 Choice of Machines and Apparatuses 383 14.7 Operating Conditions 386 14.8 Drying Gas 387 14.9 Learnings 389 References 390 15 Design of Disperse Solids by Chemical Reactions 391 Summary 391 15.1 Importance of Solid-State Reactions 391 15.2 Theoretical Bases 392 15.3 Modeling of Isothermal Solid-State Reactions 393 15.4 Modeling of Adiabatic Solid Reactions 395 15.5 Reactions of Disperse Particles in the Industry 395 15.5.1 Conversions with Gases 395 15.5.2 Reactions of Particles with Liquids 399 15.5.3 Conversions in Liquids 402 15.5.4 Reactive Suspension Precipitations 403 15.6 Formation of Products 404 15.6.1 Product Formation in Fluid/Solid Reactions 404 15.6.2 Product Formation through Reactions in Suspension 406 15.6.3 Influencing the Product Design 407 15.7 Etherification of Cellulose 409 15.8 Dry Neutralization 414 15.8.1 Raw Materials 414 15.8.2 Chemical Formulas 414 15.8.3 Modeling of the Reaction Processes 415 15.8.4 Reaction Sequence 415 15.9 Building Materials 418 15.10 Hints for Practice 419 15.11 Learnings 420 References 420 16 Materials for the Machinery 423 Summary 423 16.1 Motivation 423 16.2 Relationship between Material and Product Design 424 16.3 Choice of Material 425 16.4 Stainless Steel 426 16.4.1 Standard Grade 427 16.4.2 Corrosion 428 16.4.3 Smoothing the Metal Surfaces 430 16.4.3.1 Preparations 430 16.4.3.2 Mechanical Procedures 431 16.4.3.3 Pickling 432 16.4.3.4 Electropolishing 433 16.4.3.5 Plasma Polishing 436 16.5 Nonferrous (NF) Metals and Alloys 437 16.6 Inorganic Nonmetallic Materials 440 16.6.1 Borosilicate Glass 440 16.6.2 Vitreous Enamel 441 16.6.3 Graphite 442 16.7 Plastics 443 16.8 Learnings 447 References 448 17 Principles of Product Design 449 Summary 449 17.1 Characteristic Features 449 17.2 Targeted Production of Particles and Fluids from Different Raw Materials 450 17.3 Learnings 453 List of Companies 455 Index 461

Product Details

  • publication date: 04/06/2014
  • ISBN13: 9783527333356
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 488
  • ID: 9783527333356
  • weight: 1196
  • ISBN10: 3527333355

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