Infrastructure as an Asset Class: Investment Strategy, Sustainability, Project Finance and PPP (The Wiley Finance Series 2nd Revised edition)

Infrastructure as an Asset Class: Investment Strategy, Sustainability, Project Finance and PPP (The Wiley Finance Series 2nd Revised edition)

By: Barbara Weber (author), Mirjam Staub-Bisang (author), Hans Wilhelm Alfen (author)Hardback

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Description

Clear, comprehensive guidance toward the global infrastructure investment market Infrastructure As An Asset Class is the leading infrastructure investment guide, with comprehensive coverage and in-depth expert insight. This new second edition has been fully updated to reflect the current state of the global infrastructure market, its sector and capital requirements, and provides a valuable overview of the knowledge base required to enter the market securely. Step-by-step guidance walks you through individual infrastructure assets, emphasizing project financing structures, risk analysis, instruments to help you understand the mechanics of this complex, but potentially rewarding, market. New chapters explore energy, renewable energy, transmission and sustainability, providing a close analysis of these increasingly lucrative areas. The risk profile of an asset varies depending on stage, sector and country, but the individual structure is most important in determining the risk/return profile. This book provides clear, detailed explanations and invaluable insight from a leading practitioner to give you a solid understanding of the global infrastructure market. * Get up to date on the current global infrastructure market * Investigate individual infrastructure assets step-by-step * Examine illustrative real-world case studies * Understand the factors that determine risk/return profiles Infrastructure continues to be an area of global investment growth, both in the developed world and in emerging markets. Conditions continually change, markets shift and new considerations arise; only the most current reference can supply the right information practitioners need to be successful. Infrastructure As An Asset Class provides clear reference based on the current global infrastructure markets, with in-depth analysis and expert guidance toward effective infrastructure investment.

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About Author

BARBARA WEBER is founding partner of B Capital Partners AG in Zurich, an investment advisory firm focused on institutional private equity portfolios and specialising in infrastructure and clean energy. MIRJAM STAUB-BISANG is CEO of Independent Capital Group AG in Zurich, an asset management and real estate investment company focused on sustainable investing across asset classes. HANS WILHELM ALFEN is chair of construction economics at the Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar in Germany and general manager and founder of Alfen Consult GmbH, Weimar.

Contents

List of Figures xi List of Tables xiii Preface xv Acknowledgements xvii About the Authors xix Introduction xxi CHAPTER 1 Infrastructure An Overview 1 1.1 Demand for Infrastructure 1 1.2 Sustainability and Infrastructure 7 1.2.1 Sustainability and sustainable development a brief history 8 1.2.2 The need for sustainable infrastructure 9 1.3 Definition and Characteristics of Infrastructure 10 1.3.1 Differentiation of terms: project asset facility 13 1.3.2 Characteristics 14 1.3.3 Cross-sector characteristics 16 1.3.4 Types of infrastructure companies 16 1.3.5 Role of the private sector 18 1.3.6 Value chain elements 19 1.3.7 Greenfield versus brownfield investments 21 1.3.8 Sources of revenue and financing 22 1.3.9 Competition and regulation 24 CHAPTER 2 Infrastructure Investments 27 2.1 Infrastructure as an Asset Class 28 2.1.1 Investors in infrastructure 29 2.1.2 Risk/return profile of unlisted infrastructure investments 33 2.1.3 Benchmarking infrastructure investments 40 2.1.4 Portfolio diversification through infrastructure 46 2.2 Sustainable Infrastructure Investing 56 2.2.1 Concept of sustainable investing 56 2.2.2 Why invest in sustainable infrastructure? 61 2.2.3 How to invest in sustainable infrastructure 64 2.2.4 Challenges for sustainable infrastructure investing 68 2.3 Approaches to Infrastructure Investing 69 2.3.1 Listed infrastructure investments 69 2.3.2 Unlisted infrastructure investments 73 2.3.3 Direct investments/co-investments 85 CHAPTER 3 Organisational Model 87 3.1 Privatisation Models 88 3.1.1 Formal privatisation 93 3.1.2 Functional privatisation 95 3.1.3 Material privatisation 96 3.2 Partnership Models 100 3.3 Business Models 102 3.3.1 Availability payment models 102 3.3.2 User-driven payment models 105 3.3.3 Direct-user payment models 106 3.4 PPP Contractual Models 107 3.5 Financing Models 110 3.6 Interim Summary Various Privatisation Paths 110 CHAPTER 4 Characteristics of Selected Infrastructure Sectors and Subsectors 113 4.1 Transport 114 4.1.1 Cross-sector characteristics 114 4.1.2 Road transport 118 4.1.3 Rail transport 125 4.1.4 Air transport 133 4.1.5 Water transport 141 4.1.6 Sustainability considerations 149 4.2 Water Supply and Sewage Disposal 152 4.2.1 Characteristics and organisation 152 4.2.2 Sources of revenue and value chain elements 158 4.2.3 Competition and regulation 160 4.2.4 Private-sector involvement 161 4.2.5 Sustainability considerations 164 4.3 Waste Disposal 166 4.3.1 Characteristics and organisation 166 4.3.2 Sources of revenue and value chain elements 172 4.3.3 Competition and regulation 175 4.3.4 Private-sector involvement 176 4.3.5 Sustainability considerations 178 4.4 Energy Electricity 180 4.4.1 Overview of the energy market 181 4.4.2 Renewable electricity generation cross-sector characteristics 186 4.4.3 Solar energy 192 4.4.4 Wind onshore 194 4.4.5 Wind energy offshore 196 4.4.6 Hydropower 197 4.4.7 Bioenergy/biopower 200 4.4.8 Transmission and distribution 202 4.4.9 Energy storage 214 4.4.10 Sustainability considerations 227 4.5 Natural gas networks 233 4.5.1 Characteristics and organisation 233 4.5.2 Transmission/transportation 234 4.5.3 Storage 235 4.5.4 Distribution 236 4.5.5 Sources of revenue and value chain elements 237 4.5.6 Competition and regulation 237 4.5.7 Private-sector involvement 238 4.5.8 Sustainability considerations 239 4.6 District Energy Systems (DES) 241 4.6.1 Characteristics and organisation 241 4.6.2 Sources of revenue and value chain elements 243 4.6.3 Competition and regulation 244 4.6.4 Private-sector involvement 245 4.6.5 Sustainability considerations 246 4.7 Social Infrastructure 248 4.7.1 Healthcare facilities 250 4.7.2 Education facilities 253 4.7.3 Administrative facilities 254 4.7.4 Sustainability considerations 255 CHAPTER 5 Risks 259 5.1 Risk management 259 5.1.1 Risk matrix 264 5.2 General Risks 265 5.2.1 Market risk 265 5.2.2 Interest rate risk 268 5.2.3 Exchange rate risk 269 5.2.4 Environmental, social and governance (ESG) risk 270 5.2.5 Political, legal and regulatory risk 277 5.2.6 Force majeure 282 5.3 Project/Asset-specific Risks 282 5.3.1 Planning, construction and completion risk 283 5.3.2 Technical risk 285 5.3.3 Financing risk 286 5.3.4 Syndication risk 288 5.3.5 Operational risk 289 5.3.6 Contractual and counterparty risk 290 5.3.7 Realisation risk 290 5.4 Sector-specific Risks 291 CHAPTER 6 Project Finance 295 6.1 Project Finance Basics 295 6.2 PPP and Project Finance 297 6.3 Basic Structure of Project Finance 299 6.3.1 Key characteristics 299 6.3.2 Project participants and other stakeholders 302 6.3.3 Objectives and contributions of project participants 308 6.3.4 Typical contractual framework for project finance 310 6.4 Structuring Project Finance Traditional and in PPPs 312 6.4.1 Phase I Advisory 316 6.4.2 Phase II Project assessment 317 6.4.3 Phase III Risk analysis and allocation 319 6.4.4 Phase IV Financing 319 6.4.5 Phase V Implementation and monitoring 325 CHAPTER 7 Financing Instruments 327 7.1 Equity 328 7.2 Mezzanine Capital 331 7.3 Debt 332 7.3.1 Senior loans 332 7.3.2 Bonds 335 7.3.3 Short-term finance 339 7.4 Government Support Schemes 339 7.4.1 National development banks 340 7.4.2 European Investment Bank (EIB) 342 7.4.3 European PPP Expertise Centre (EPEC) 343 7.4.4 Governmental export credit and direct investment insurance ECAs 343 7.5 Asset-backed Securities 344 7.6 Sale and Leaseback 346 7.7 Derivatives 346 7.7.1 Futures 347 7.7.2 Options 348 APPENDIX A Sample page from CDC Toolkit on ESG for Fund Managers 351 APPENDIX B Credit list for Envision s Sustainable Infrastructure Rating System 353 APPENDIX C Infrastructure Sustainability Rating System (Australia) Themes and Categories 355 APPENDIX D National Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) 357 References 361 Index 000

Product Details

  • publication date: 03/06/2016
  • ISBN13: 9781119226543
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 424
  • ID: 9781119226543
  • weight: 878
  • ISBN10: 1119226546
  • edition: 2nd Revised edition

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