Inkjet-Based Micromanufacturing: Volume 9 (Advanced Micro and Nanosystems)

Inkjet-Based Micromanufacturing: Volume 9 (Advanced Micro and Nanosystems)

By: Jan G. Korvink (editor), Christofer Hierold (editor), Gary K. Fedder (editor), Oliver Brand (editor), Osamu Tabata (editor), Dong-Youn Shin (series_editor), Patrick J. Smith (series_editor)Hardback

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Description

Inkjet-based Micromanufacturing Inkjet technology goes way beyond putting ink on paper: it enables simpler, faster and more reliable manufacturing processes in the fields of micro- and nanotechnology. Modern inkjet heads are per se precision instruments that deposit droplets of fluids on a variety of surfaces in programmable, repeating patterns, allowing, after suitable modifications and adaptations, the manufacturing of devices such as thin-film transistors, polymer-based displays and photovoltaic elements. Moreover, inkjet technology facilitates the large-scale production of flexible RFID transponders needed, eg, for automated logistics and miniaturized sensors for applications in health surveillance. The book gives an introduction to inkjet-based micromanufacturing, followed by an overview of the underlying theories and models, which provides the basis for a full understanding and a successful usage of inkjet-based methods in current microsystems research and development Overview of Inkjet-based Micromanufacturing: Thermal Inkjet Theory and Modeling Post-Printing Processes for Inorganic Inks for Plastic Electronics Applications Inkjet Ink Formulations Inkjet Fabrication of Printed Circuit Boards Antennas for Radio Frequency Identification Tags Inkjet Printing for MEMS

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About Author

Jan G. Korvink holds a Chair for Microsystems Engineering at the University of Freiburg, Germany, where he also directs the Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies - FRIAS. He has co-authored more than 160 papers in scientific journals, as well as numerous conference papers, book chapters and a book on semiconductors for engineers. His research interests cover the modeling, simulation and low cost fabrication of MEMS/NEMS, and applications in magnetic resonance. In 2011 he received a European Research Council (ERC) Advanced Grant, the Red Dot Design Concept Award and the University of Freiburg Teaching Award. Patrick J. Smith is a Lecturer in Manufacturing Technology for the University of Sheffield, UK. He has published over 40 journal and conference papers, and has 3 patents. His main research interests are concerned with reactive inkjet printing, controlled crystallisation using inkjet and additive manufacture. Dong-Youn Shin is Assistant Professor at the Pukyong National University in Busan, South Korea. Before his appointment, he was research engineer at LG Chem Research Park and then senior research scientist in the division of nanomechanical systems at the Korean Institute of Machinery and Materials in South Korea. He holds 38 patents and over 70 conference and journal papers. His research interests lie in maskless lithography and fine pattern generation for displays and electronics with the piezo inkjet printing technology.

Contents

List of Contributors XIII 1 Overview of Inkjet-Based Micromanufacturing 1 David Wallace 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Inkjet Technology 1 1.2.1 Continuous Mode Inkjet (CIJ) Technology 2 1.2.2 Demand Mode Inkjet Technology 2 1.3 Fluid Requirements 3 1.4 Pattern Formation: Fluid/Substrate Interaction 5 1.5 Micromanufacturing 6 1.5.1 Introduction 6 1.5.2 Limitations and Opportunities in Micromanufacturing 7 1.5.3 Benefits of Inkjet in Microfabrication 8 1.6 Examples of Inkjet in Micromanufacturing 9 1.6.1 Chemical Sensors 9 1.6.2 Optical MEMS Devices 10 1.6.3 Bio-MEMS Devices 12 1.6.4 Assembly and Packaging 13 1.7 Conclusions 14 Acknowledgments 14 References 14 2 Combinatorial Screening of Materials Using Inkjet Printing as a Patterning Technique 19 Anke Teichler, Jolke Perelaer, and Ulrich S. Schubert 2.1 Introduction 19 2.2 Inkjet Printing from Well-Defined Dots to Homogeneous Films 20 2.3 Thin-Film Libraries Prepared by Inkjet Printing 25 2.4 Combinatorial Screening of Materials for Organic Solar Cells 28 2.5 Conclusion and Outlook 34 References 35 3 Thermal Inkjet 41 Naoki Morita 3.1 History of Thermal Inkjet Technology 41 3.2 Market Trends for Inkjet Products and Electrophotography 42 3.3 Structures of Various TIJ Heads 43 3.4 Research on Rapid Boiling and Principle of TIJ 44 3.5 Inkjetting Mechanism of TIJ 47 3.6 Basic Jetting Behavior of TIJ 48 3.6.1 Input Power Characteristics 48 3.6.2 Frequency Characteristics 49 3.6.3 Dependency on Temperature 49 3.7 TIJ Behavior Analysis Using Simulation 51 3.7.1 Cylindrical Thermal Propagating Calculation Based on the Finite Element Method (Software Name: Ansys) 51 3.7.2 Fluidic Free Boundary Calculation Based on the Finite Differentiation Method (Software name: Flow3D) 51 3.8 Issues with Reliability in TIJ 53 3.9 Present and Future Evolution in TIJ Technology 54 References 55 4 High-Resolution Electrohydrodynamic Inkjet 57 Park Jang-Ung and John A. Rogers 4.1 Introduction 57 4.2 Printing System 57 4.3 Control of Jet Motions 59 4.4 Drop-on-Demand Mode Printing 60 4.5 Versatility of Printable Materials and Resolutions 62 4.6 Applications in Electronics and Biotechnology 64 4.7 High-Resolution Printing of Charge 69 References 70 5 Cross Talk in Piezo Inkjet 73 Herman Wijshoff 5.1 Introduction 73 5.2 Electrical Cross Talk 73 5.3 Direct Cross Talk 74 5.4 Pressure-Induced Cross Talk 76 5.5 Acoustic Cross Talk 78 5.6 Printhead Resonance 81 5.7 Residual Vibrations 83 References 84 6 Patterning 87 Patrick J. Smith and Jonathan Stringer 6.1 Introduction 87 6.1.1 Droplet Impact and Final Droplet Radius 88 6.1.2 Evaporation of Inkjet-Printed Droplets at Room Temperature 90 6.1.3 Morphological Control for Ink Droplets, Lines, and Films 91 6.2 Conclusion 94 References 95 7 Drying of Inkjet-Printed Droplets 97 Hans Kuerten and Daniel Siregar 7.1 Introduction 97 7.2 Modeling of Drying of a Droplet 98 7.2.1 Fluid Model 98 7.2.2 Lubrication Approximation 99 7.2.3 Solute Concentration 101 7.2.4 Evaporation Velocity 102 7.2.5 Numerical Method 103 7.3 Results 103 7.3.1 Droplet Shape Evolution 104 7.3.2 Layer Thickness 106 7.3.3 Effect of Diffusion 108 Acknowledgments 109 References 109 8 Postprinting Processes for Inorganic Inks for Plastic Electronics Applications 111 Jolke Perelaer 8.1 Introduction 111 8.1.1 Inkjet Printing 111 8.1.2 Printed Electronics 111 8.2 Inkjet Printing and Postprinting Processes of Metallic Inks 112 8.2.1 Choice of Metal 112 8.2.2 Postprinting Processes to Convert Inorganic Precursor Ink 115 8.2.3 Conventional Sintering Techniques 116 8.2.4 Alternative and Selective Sintering Methods 116 8.2.5 Room-Temperature Sintering 119 8.3 Conclusions and Outlook 121 Acknowledgments 122 References 122 9 Vision Monitoring 127 Kye-Si Kwon 9.1 Introduction 127 9.2 Measurement Setup 127 9.3 Image Processing 130 9.4 Jetting Speed Measurement 134 9.5 Head Normalization and Condition Monitoring 139 9.6 Meniscus Motion Measurement and Its Application 141 References 144 10 Acoustic Monitoring 145 Herman Wijshoff 10.1 Introduction 145 10.2 Self Sensing 145 10.3 Measuring Principle 146 10.4 Drop Formation, Refill, and Wetting 150 10.5 Dirt 152 10.6 Air Bubbles 153 10.7 Printhead Control 156 References 157 11 Equalization of Jetting Performance 159 Man-In Baek and Michael Hong 11.1 Equalization of the Droplet Volume on the Fly 160 11.1.1 Components of a Drop Watcher 160 11.1.2 Equalization through Volume Control 160 11.1.3 Results of the Droplet Volume Measurement and Equalization Process 161 11.1.4 Speed Equalization 164 11.1.5 Problems with the Droplet Equalization Methods on the Fly 164 11.1.5.1 Distortion of the Captured Droplet Images 166 11.1.5.2 Relation between Droplet Volume and Speed 166 11.2 Droplet Volume Equalization with Sessile Droplets 166 11.2.1 Equalizing the Droplet Volume with the Measurement of Sessile Droplets 167 11.2.2 Results of the Sessile Droplet Measurement and Equalization Process 168 11.2.3 Usefulness of the Sessile Droplet Measurement and Equalization Process 169 11.2.4 The Droplet Volume Equalization Process Using Light Transmittance 170 11.2.5 Result of the Droplet Volume Equalization Process Using Light Transmittance 171 Further Reading 171 12 Inkjet Ink Formulations 173 Alexander Kamyshny and Shlomo Magdassi 12.1 Introduction 173 12.2 Ink Formulation 174 12.2.1 Functional Materials 176 12.2.2 Solvents 177 12.2.2.1 Solvent-Based Inks 177 12.2.2.2 Water-Based Inks 178 12.2.3 Hot-Melt (Phase-Change) Inks 178 12.2.4 UV-Curable Inks 178 12.3 Ink Parameters and Additives 179 12.3.1 Rheology Control 179 12.3.2 Surface Tension Modifiers 180 12.3.3 Electrolytes and pH 180 12.3.4 Foaming and Defoamers 181 12.3.5 Humectants 181 12.3.6 Binders 181 12.3.7 Biocides 182 12.3.8 Examples of Inkjet Ink Formulations 182 12.4 Jetting Performance 182 12.4.1 Drop Formation 183 12.4.2 Ink Latency 183 12.4.3 Recoverability 184 12.4.4 Ink Supply 184 12.5 Ink Interaction with Substrates 185 12.6 Nongraphic Applications 186 12.7 Conclusions 187 References 187 13 Issues in Color Filter Fabrication with Inkjet Printing 191 Dong-Youn Shin and Kenneth A. Brakke 13.1 Introduction 191 13.2 Background 191 13.3 Comparison of Printing Technologies 195 13.4 Printing Swathe due to Droplet Volume Variation 199 13.5 Subpixel Filling with a Designed Surface Energy Condition 204 13.6 Other Technical Issues 212 13.7 Conclusion 213 References 213 14 Application of Inkjet Printing in High-Density Pixelated RGB Quantum Dot-Hybrid LEDs 217 Hanna Haverinen and Ghassan E. Jabbour 14.1 Introduction 217 14.2 Background 218 14.3 Experimental Procedure and Results 220 14.3.1 Role of Droplet Formation 221 14.3.2 Atomic Force Microscopy 222 14.3.3 Electroluminescence 225 14.4 Inkjet-Printed, High-Density RGB Pixel Matrix 229 14.5 Conclusion 234 Acknowledgment 234 References 234 Further Reading 236 15 Inkjet Printing of Metal Oxide Thin-Film Transistors 237 Jooho Moon and Keunkyu Song 15.1 Introduction 237 15.2 Materials for Metal Oxide Semiconductors 237 15.3 Inkjet Printing Issues 239 15.3.1 Ink Printability 239 15.3.2 Influence of Substrate Preheat Temperature 242 15.4 Solution-to-Solid Conversion by Annealing 247 15.5 All-Oxide Invisible Transistors 251 15.6 Summary 254 References 254 16 Inkjet Fabrication of Printed Circuit Boards 257 Thomas Sutter 16.1 Introduction 257 16.2 Traditional Printed Circuit Board Processes 257 16.3 Challenges for Inkjet in Printed Circuit Boards 258 16.4 Legend-Marking Processes 261 16.4.1 Cost Comparison 262 16.4.2 Materials for Legend Printing 262 16.5 Innerlayer Copper Circuit Patterning 263 16.5.1 Materials for Copper Etch Resists 264 16.5.2 Substrate Modification 265 16.6 Copper Plating Resist 266 16.7 Waste Reduction Using Inkjet Printing 268 16.8 Solder Mask Printing 269 16.9 Metallic Inks 273 16.10 Theoretical Printing Example for PCB Manufacturing 275 16.11 Digital Printing Alternatives to Inkjet Fabrication 276 16.12 Future Applications for Inkjet in Printed Circuit Boards 276 References 277 17 Photovoltaics 279 Heather A.S. Platt and Maikel F.A.M. van Hest 17.1 Introduction 279 17.2 Device Structures 280 17.3 Small- and Large-Area Printing for Photovoltaics 283 17.4 Commercial Inkjet for Photovoltaics 289 17.5 Summary and Perspective 291 References 292 18 Inkjet Printed Electrochemical Sensors 295 Aoife Morrin 18.1 Introduction 295 18.2 Printed Sensor Manufacturing 297 18.3 Inkjet Printing of Sensor Components 298 18.3.1 Substrates 299 18.3.2 Conducting Tracks 300 18.3.3 Transducer Materials 300 18.3.4 Biomolecules 305 18.4 Inkjet-Printed Sensor Applications 306 18.5 Future Commercial Projection 306 Abbreviations 309 References 309 19 Antennas for Radio Frequency Identification Tags 313 Vivek Subramanian 19.1 Introduction 313 19.1.1 Introduction to RFID 313 19.1.1.1 RFID Tag Classification 314 19.1.2 Applications of Printing to RFID Antenna Production 317 19.1.2.1 An Overview of RFID HF versus UHF 318 19.1.2.2 Silicon-Based RFID Tag Construction from Chip to Tag 319 19.2 Printed Antennas 319 19.2.1 HF Tag Antenna Considerations 320 19.2.2 UHF Tag Antenna Considerations 321 19.2.3 Application of Printing to Antenna Fabrication 322 19.2.4 Materials for Printed Antennas 323 19.2.4.1 Metallic Pastes 324 19.2.4.2 Particle-Based Inks 325 19.2.4.3 Organometallic Precursors 326 19.3 Summary of Status and Outlook for Printed Antennas 327 References 328 20 Inkjet Printing for MEMS 331 K. Pataky, V. Auzelyte, and J. Brugger 20.1 Introduction 331 20.2 Photolithography and Etching 331 20.2.1 Photolithography 332 20.2.2 Etching 332 20.3 Direct Materials Deposition 333 20.4 Optical MEMS 336 20.5 MEMS Packaging 339 20.6 Functionalization and Novel Applications 340 20.7 Conclusion 342 References 342 21 Inkjet Printing of Interconnects and Contacts Based on Inorganic Nanoparticles for Printed Electronic Applications 347 Jolke Perelaer and Ulrich S. Schubert 21.1 Introduction 347 21.2 Inkjet Printing of Metallic Inks for Contacts and Interconnects 348 21.2.1 Inkjet Printed Contacts and Interconnects for Microelectronic Applications 348 21.3 Inkjet Printing in High Resolution 351 21.3.1 Surface Wetting and Ink Modifications 351 21.3.2 Reduced Printed Droplet Diameter 353 21.3.3 Physical Surface Treatment 357 21.3.4 Inkjet-Printed Ionogels 359 21.4 Conclusions and Outlook 361 Acknowledgments 362 References 362 Index 365

Product Details

  • publication date: 04/04/2012
  • ISBN13: 9783527319046
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 388
  • ID: 9783527319046
  • weight: 896
  • ISBN10: 3527319042

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  • 1st Class Delivery: Yes
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