The World Bank has gained significant experience in supporting innovation systems projects. The Bank's role typically has been to facilitate and augment reform efforts through its experiences around the world, playing the role of an ""honest broker"" between the productive and science and technology sectors. This work has enhanced the effectiveness of the design and delivery of services and the sustainability of these activities. The Bank's involvement also ensures that institutional accountability is of high importance. Prudent market tests are applied to the various available interventions and fiscal discipline is imposed on institutions that are in the process of restructuring. Drawing on its experience, the Bank provides the long-term support, advice, and leverage needed during restructuring for institutions that seek to attain greater fiscal independence and to enhance the quality of their services and their contribution to the national economy. Innovation Systems concentrates its analysis on projects financed by the Bank during 1990-2003, together with some successful earlier examples, and reviews some 51 projects involving over USUSD4.2 billion in Bank support.