Input-based Phonological Acquisition (Outstanding Dissertations in Linguistics)
By: Tania S. Zamuner (author)Hardback
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This book provides an analysis of two theories of language acquisition: the theory that acquisition is primarily mediated by innate properties of language provided by universal grammar, and the opposing theory that language is acquired based on the patterns in the ambient language. A problem not often considered is that these two theories are confounded because the structures that are frequent across languages are also typically the most frequent within a specific language. In addition, the innate theory of language acquisition is difficult to quantify and qualify. Using cross-linguistic, corpus and experimental approaches, this book attempts to contrast these theories through an examination of the acquisition of word-final consonants in English.
Tania S. Zamuner received her Ph.D. in Linguistics at the University of Arizona in 2001. She is currently a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Nijmegen in the Netherlands and is researching infants' acquisition of language at the Baby Research Center of the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics.
LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF TABLES Chapter 1: Accounts of acquisition: Universal Grammar and the input 1.1 Introduction 1.2 1.1.1 Focus of research 1.2 Universal Grammar 1.2.1 Establishing Universal Grammar 1.2.2 Universal Grammar and child language: The parallel between cross-linguistic markedness and child language 1.2.3 Universal Grammar Hypothesis of language acquisition 1.3 The Input 1.3.1 Child language reflects the language specific input 1.3.2 General Pattern Learning Hypothesis of language acquisition 1.4 The research question 1.4.1 Test case: The acquisition of coda consonants 22.214.171.124 Definition of coda consonants 126.96.36.199 Representation of final consonants 188.8.131.52 Restrictions on analyses 184.108.40.206 Place of articulation 220.127.116.11 Sonority 1.5 Goal and outline of dissertation Chapter 2: Cross-linguistic codas 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Data 2.2.1 Determining markedness 2.2.2 Types of data 2.3 Types of analyses 2.3.1 Expected Frequency Analyses (EFA) 2.3.2 Actual Frequency Analyses (AFA) 2.4 Place of articulation in coda position 2.4.1 Previous research on place of articulation in coda position 2.4.2 Place of articulation in coda position: EFA 2.4.3 Place of articulation in coda position: AFA 2.4.4 Summary of place of articulation in coda position TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued 2.5 Sonority in coda position .. 2.5.1 Previous research on sonority in coda position .. 2.5.2 Sonority in coda position: EFA 2.5.3 Sonority in coda Position: AFA 2.5.4 Summary of sonority in coda position .. 2.6 Universal Grammar Hypothesis for coda acquisition Chapter 3: English Codas 3.1 Introduction 3.1.1 Previous studies of phoneme distributions in English . 3.2 English data 3.2.1 Random House Dictionary .. 3.2.2 Webster's Dictionary 3.2.3 MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) . 3.2.4 Child Directed Speech Corpus (CDSC) 3.2.5 Summary of sources 3.3 Distribution of codas in English .. 3.4 General Pattern Learning Hypothesis for coda acquisition .. 3.5 Comparing the UGH and the GPLH .. 3.5.1 Place of articulation and the distribution of codas in English . 3.5.2 Sonority and the distribution of codas in English . 3.5.3 Summary of place of articulation and sonority and the distribution of codas in English .. 3.6 Summary .. Chapter 4: Child Language Codas 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Data .. 4.3 Independent and Relational Analyses .. 4.3.1 Independent Analysis of coda consonant acquisition . 4.3.2 Relational Analysis of coda consonant acquisition .. 4.4 Summary of child language coda preferences .. 4.5 Limitations based on using data from previous studies .. TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued Chapter 5: Experiment 1: Two-year-olds' Production of Coda Consonants 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Method 5.2.1 Subjects 5.2.2 Stimuli 5.2.3 Procedure .. 5.3 Results 5.3.1 Data coding 5.3.2 Results of spontaneous and imitated productions .. 5.3.3 Results based on weighted responses of spontaneous productions .. 5.4 Evaluation of the UGH and the GPLH .. 5.4.1 Summary of UGH, GPLH and child language data . 18.104.22.168 Summary of the UGH .. 22.214.171.124 Summary of the GPLH .. 126.96.36.199 Summary of child language data .. 5.4.2 UGH and child language data 188.8.131.52 UGH and place of articulation 184.108.40.206 UGH and sonority 220.127.116.11 Summary of UGH evaluation 5.4.3 GPLH and child language data 5.4.4 Summary of UGH and GPLH evaluations 5.5 Influences of methodology on results Chapter 6: Experiment 2: Two-year-olds' Production of Coda Consonants in Low and High Phonotactic Probability CVC Non-Words 6.1 Introduction .. 6.1.1 Phonotactic probability .. 6.1.2 Previous research on phonotactic probabilities in English . 6.1.3 Goal of experiment .. 6.2 Method 6.2.1 Subjects 6.2.2 Stimuli 18.104.22.168 Calculating phonotactic probabilities .. 22.214.171.124 Neighbourhood densities of stimuli 126.96.36.199 Word-likelihood ratings of stimuli .. TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued 6.2.3 Procedure .. 6.3 Results .. 6.3.1 Data coding .. 6.3.2 Analyses .. 6.4 Discussion Chapter 7: Coda Acquisition: Discussion and Conclusion 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Review .. 7.2.1 Review of the Universal Grammar Hypothesis (UGH) .. 7.2.2 Review of the General Pattern Learning Hypothesis (GPLH) .. 7.2.3 Review of child language data .. 7.2.4 Results and discussion 188.8.131.52 Results and discussion: UGH 184.108.40.206 Results and discussion: GPLH 220.127.116.11 Accounting for frequency effects in acquisition .. 18.104.22.168 Alternative account: Ease of perception and/or production .. 7.3 Future directions .. 7.3.1 Prosodic and segmental interactions, and word class 7.3.2 Optimality Theory 7.3.3 Clinical extensions 7.3.4 Logical possibilities for language acquisition 7.3.5 Phonological development and infant study 7.4 Conclusion .. Appendix A Languages used in cross-linguistic analysis organised by language .. Appendix B Languages used in cross-linguistic analysis organised by language family .. Appendix C EFA results for cross-linguistic place of articulation in coda position Appendix D AFA results for cross-linguistic place of articulation in coda position Appendix E EFA results for cross-linguistic sonority in coda position . Appendix F AFA results for cross-linguistic sonority in coda position TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued Appendix G EFA for coronal place of articulation for different sources in English . Appendix H AFA for coronal place of articulation for different sources in English . Appendix I EFA for sonority for different sources in English . Appendix J AFA for sonority for different sources in English . Appendix K Mann-Whitney U-Test results for frequency in children's coda productions . Appendix L Mann-Whitney U-Test results for frequency in children's coda productions Appendix M Responses of correctly produced codas in low and high phonotactic probability (PP) non-words by subjects Appendix N Children's accuracy of coda productions in low and high PP non-words, real word responses excluded . Appendix O Children's accuracy of word productions in low and high PP non-words .. Appendix P Children's accuracy of rhyme productions in low and high PP non-words References
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