Integrated Circuit Design: International Version - A Circuits and Systems Perspective (Global ed of 4th revised ed)

Integrated Circuit Design: International Version - A Circuits and Systems Perspective (Global ed of 4th revised ed)

By: Neil Weste (author), David Harris (author)Paperback

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Description

For both introductory and advanced courses in VLSI design, this authoritative, comprehensive textbook is highly accessible to beginners, yet offers unparalleled breadth and depth for more experienced readers.

The Fourth Edition of CMOS VLSI Design: A Circuits and Systems perspective presents broad and in-depth coverage of the entire field of modern CMOS VLSI Design. The authors draw upon extensive industry and classroom experience to introduce today� s most advanced and effective chip design practices. They present extensively updated coverage of every key element of VLSI design, and illuminate the latest design challenges with 65 nm process examples. This book contains unsurpassed circuit-level coverage, as well as a rich set of problems and worked examples that provide deep practical insight to readers at all levels.

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About Author

David Money Harris Associate Professor of Engineering at Harvey Mudd College in Claremont, CA, holds a Ph.D. from Stanford University and S.B. and M.Eng. degrees from MIT. His research interests include CMOS VLSI design, microprocessors, and computer arithmetic. He holds a dozen patents, is the author of three other books in the field of digital design and three hiking guidebooks, and has designed chips at Sun Microsystems, Intel, Hewlett-Packard, and Evans & Sutherland. Neil Weste is a member of the faculty at the Department of Electronic Engineering, Macquarie University; Adjunct Professor of Electrical Engineering at The University of Adelaide; and Director, Engineering at Cisco's Wireless Networking Business Unit. He is a Fellow of the IEEE for his contributions to custom IC design, and a peer elected member of the IEEE Solid State Circuits Society. In 1997 he cofounded Radiata Communications (with David Skellern) which designed the first chip sets for the IEEE 802.11a WLAN standard; in 2001 Radiata was acquired by Cisco. He has served as department head at Bell Laboratories; leader of design projects for Symbolics, Inc.; and as president of TLW, Inc., an IC engineering company that completed groundbreaking chip designs for companies such as North American Philips, Analog Devices, AT&T Microelectronics and Thomson Consumer Electronics.

Contents

Chapter 1 Welcome to VLSI
1.1 A Brief History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Preview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.3 MOS Transistors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.4 CMOS Logic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.4.1 The Inverter 9
1.4.2 The NAND Gate 9
1.4.3 CMOS Logic Gates 9
1.4.4 The NOR Gate 11
1.4.5 Compound Gates 11
1.4.6 Pass Transistors and Transmission Gates 12
1.4.7 Tristates 14
1.4.8 Multiplexers 15
1.4.9 Sequential Circuits 16
1.5 CMOS Fabrication and Layout. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1.5.1 Inverter Cross-Section 19
1.5.2 Fabrication Process 20
1.5.3 Layout Design Rules 24
1.5.4 Gate Layouts 27
1.5.5 Stick Diagrams 28
1.6 Design Partitioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
1.6.1 Design Abstractions 30
1.6.2 Structured Design 31
1.6.3 Behavioral, Structural, and Physical Domains 31
1.7 Example: A Simple MIPS Microprocessor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
1.7.1 MIPS Architecture 33
1.7.2 Multicycle MIPS Microarchitectures 34
1.8 Logic Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
1.8.1 Top-Level Interfaces 38
1.8.2 Block Diagrams 38
1.8.3 Hierarchy 40
1.8.4 Hardware Description Languages 40
1.9 Circuit Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
1.10 Physical Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
1.10.1 Floorplanning 45
1.10.2 Standard Cells 48
1.10.3 Pitch Matching 50
1.10.4 Slice Plans 50
1.10.5 Arrays 51
1.10.6 Area Estimation 51
1.11 Design Verification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
1.12 Fabrication, Packaging, and Testing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Summary and a Look Ahead 55
Exercises 57

Chapter 2 Devices
2.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
2.2 Long-Channel I-V Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
2.3 C-V Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
2.3.1 Simple MOS Capacitance Models 68
2.3.2 Detailed MOS Gate Capacitance Model 70
2.3.3 Detailed MOS Diffusion Capacitance Model 72
2.4 Nonideal I-V Effects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
2.4.1 Mobility Degradation and Velocity Saturation 75
2.4.2 Channel Length Modulation 78
2.4.3 Threshold Voltage Effects 79
2.4.4 Leakage 80
2.4.5 Temperature Dependence 85
2.4.6 Geometry Dependence 86
2.4.7 Summary 86
2.5 DC Transfer Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
2.5.1 Static CMOS Inverter DC Characteristics 88
2.5.2 Beta Ratio Effects 90
2.5.3 Noise Margin 91
2.5.4 Pass Transistor DC Characteristics 92
2.6 Pitfalls and Fallacies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Summary 94
Exercises 95

Chapter 3 Speed
3.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
3.1.1?????Definitions 99
3.1.2????Timing Optimization 100
3.2 Transiet Response ...........................................................................................101
3.3 RC Delay Model ...............................................................................................104
3.3.1????Effective Resistance 104
3.3.2????Gate and Diffusion Capacitance 105
3.3.3????Equivalent RC Circuits 105
3.3.4????Transient Response 106
3.3.5????Elmore Delay 108
3.3.6????Layout Dependence of Capcitance 111
3.3.7????Determining Effective Resistance 112
3.4 Linear Delay Model? ?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
3.4.1????Logical Effort 114
3.4.2????Parasistic Delay 114
3.4.3????Delay in a Logic Gate 116
3.4.4????Drive 117

3.4.5????Extracting Logical Effort from Datasheets 117

3.4.6????Limitations to the Linear Delay Model 118
3.5 Logical Effort of Paths??. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
3.5.1????Delay in Multistage Logic Networks 121
3.5.2????Choosing the Best Number of Stages? 124
3.5.3????Example? 126
3.5.4????Summary and Observations 127

3.5.5????Limitations of Logical Effort 129

3.5.6????Iterative Solutions for Sizing 129
3.6?Timing analysis Delay Models. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
3.6.1????Slope-Based Linear Model 131
3.6.2????Nonlinear Delay Model 132

3.6.3????Current Source Model 132
3.7 Pitfalls and Fallacies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
3.8 Historical Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Summary 134
Exercises 134

Chapter 4 Power
4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
4.1.1 Definitions 140
4.1.2?Examples ?142

4.1.3 Sourches of Power Dissipation 142
4.2 Dynamic Power. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

4.2.1 Activity Factor 144

4.2.2. Capacitance 146

4.2.3 Voltage 148

4.2.4 Frequency 150

4.2.5 Short-Circuit Current 151

4.2.6 Resonant Circuits 151
4.3 Static Powerl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
4.3.1 Static Power sources 152
4.3.2 Power Gating 155
4.3.3 Multiple Threshold Voltages and Oxide Thicknesses 157
4.3.4 Variable Threshold Voltages 157
4.3.5 Input Vector Control 158
4.4 Energy-Delay Optimization ...........................................................................158
4.4.1 Minimum Energy 158
4.4.2 Minimum Energy-Delay Product 161
4.4.3 Minimum Energy Under a Delay Constraint 161
4.5 Low Power Architectures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
4.5.1 Microarchitecture 162
4.5.2 Parallelism and Pipelining 162
4.5.3 Power Management Modes 163
4.7 Pitfalls and Fallacies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
4.8 Historical Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Summary 167
Exercises 167

Chapter 5 Wires
5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
5.1.1 Wire Geometry 169
5.1.2 Example:? Intel Metal Stacks 170
5.2?Interconnect Modeling?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
5.2.1 Resistance 172
5.2.2 Capacitance 173
5.2.3 Inductance 176
5.2.4 Skin Effect 177
5.2.5 Terperature Dependence 178
5.3?Interconnect Impact?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
5.3.1 Delay 178
5.3.2 Energy 180
5.3.3 Crosstalk 180
5.3.4 Inductive Effects 182
5.3.5 An Aside on Effective Resistance and Elmore Delay 185
5.4 Interconnect Engineering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
5.4.1 Width, Spacing and Layer 187
5.4.2 Repeaters 188
5.4.3 Crosstalk Contol 190

5.4.4 Low-Swing Signaling 192

5.4.5 Regenerators 194
5.5 Logical Effort with Wires. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...................................194
5.6 Pitfalls and Fallacies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Summary 196
Exercises 196

Chapter 6 Scaling, Reliability and Variability
6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
6.2?Variability???????????? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
6.2.1 Supply Voltage 200
6.2.2 Termparature 200
6.2.3 Process Variation 201
6.2.4 Design Corners 202
6.3?Reliability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
6.3.1 Reliability Terminology 204
6.3.2 Oxide Wearout 205
6.3.3 Interconnect Wearout 207
6.3.4 Soft Errors 209
6.3.5 Overvoltage Failure 210

6.3.6 Latchup 211
6.4?Scaling???????????? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
6.4.1 Transistor Scaling 213
6.4.2 Interconnect Scaling 215
6.4.3 International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors 216
6.4.4 Impacts on Design 217
6.5?Statistical Analysis of Variability?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221

6.5.1 Properties of Random Variables 221

6.5.2 Variation Sources 224

6.5.3?Variation Impacts 227
6.6?Variation-Tolerant Design?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

6.6.1 Adaptive Control 233

6.6.2 Fault Tolerance 233

6.7? Pitfalls and Fallacies ..............................................................................................235

6.8 Historical Perspective ............................................................................................236
Summary 242
Exercises 242

Chapter 7 SPICE
7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
7.2?A Spice Tutorial?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
7.2.1 Souirces and Passive Components 246
7.2.2 Transistor DC analysis 250
7.2.3 Inverter Transient analysis 250
7.2.4 Subcircuits and Measurement 252

7.2.5 Optimization 254

7.2.6 Other HSPICE Commands 256
7.3?Device Models?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
7.3.1 Level 1 Models 257
7.3.2 Level 2 and 3 Models 258
7.3.3 BSIM Models 258
7.3.4 Diffusion Capacitance Models 258
7.3.5 Design Corners 260
7.4?Device Characterization?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
7.4.1 I-V Characteristics 261
7.4.2 Threshold Voltage 264
7.4.3 Gate Capacitance 266
7.4.4 Parasitic Capacitance 266

7.4.5 Effective Resistance 268

7.4.6 Comparison of Processes 269

7.4.7 Process and Environmental Sensitivity 271
7.5?Circuit Characterization?????. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
7.5.1 Path Simulations 271
7.5.2 DC Transfer Characteristics 273
7.5.3 Logical Effort 273

7.5.4 Power and Energy 276

7.5.5 Simulating Mismatches 277

7.5.6 Monte Carlo simulation 277
7.6?Interconnect Simulation?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
7.7 Pitfalls and Fallacies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
Summary 282
Exercises 282

Chapter 8 Gates
8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
8.2 Circuit Families. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
8.2.1 Static CMOS 287
8.2.2 Ratioed Circuits 292
8.2.3 Cascode Voltage Switch Logic 297
8.2.4 Dynamic Circuits 297
8.2.5 Pass-Transistor Circuits 307
8.3?Circuit Pitfalls?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
8.3.1 Threshold Drops 313
8.3.2 Ratio Failures 313
8.3.3 Leakage 314
8.3.4 Charge Sharing 314
8.3.5 Power Supply Noise 314

8.3.6 Hot Spots 315

8.3.7 Minority Carrier Injection 315

8.3.8 Back-Gate Coupling

8.3.9 Diffusion Input Noise Sensitivity 316

8.3.10 Process Sensitivity 316

8.3.11 Example:? Domino Noise Budgets 317
8.4 Silicon-On-Insulator Circuit Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
8.4.1 Floating Body Voltage 319
8.4.2 SOI Advantages 320
8.4.3 SOI Disadvantages 320
8.4.4 Implications for Circuit Styles 321
8.4.5 Summary 322
8.5?Subthreshold Circuit Design?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
8.5.1 Sizing 323
8.5.2 Gate Selection 323
8.6?Pitfalls and Fallacies?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
8.7?Historical Perspective ?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
Summary 327
Exercises 328

Chapter 9 Sequencing
9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
9.2?Sequencing Static Circuits?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
9.2.1 Sequencing Methods 334
9.2.2 Max-Delay Constraints 337
9.2.3 Min-Delay Constraints 341
9.2.4 Time Borrowing 344
9.2.5 Clock Skew 347
9.3?Circuit Design of Latches and Flip-Flops?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
9.3.1 Conventional CMOS Latches 350
9.3.2 Conventional CMOS Flip-Flops 351
9.3.3 Pulsed Latches 353
9.3.4 Resettable Latches and Flip-Flops 354
9.3.5 Enabled Latches and Flip-Flops 355
9.3.6 Incorporating Logic into Latches 356
9.3.7 Klass Semidynamic Flip-Flop (SDFF) 357
9.3.8 Differential Flip-Flops 357
9.3.9 Dual Edge-Triggered Flip-Flops 358
9.3.10 Radiation-Hardened Flip-Flops 359
9.4?Static Sequencing Element Methodology?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360

9.4.1 Choice of Elements 361

9.4.2 Characterizing Sequencing Element Delays 363

9.4.3 State Retention Registers 366

9.4.4 Level-Converter Flip-Flops 366

9.4.5 Design Margin and Adaptive Sequential Elements 367
9.5?Synchronizers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ......................................................369
9.5.1 Metastability 370
9.5.2 A Simple Synchronizer 373
9.5.3 Communicating Between Asynchronous Clock Domains 374
9.5.4 Common synchronizer Mistakes 375
9.5.5 Arbiters 377

9.5.6 Degrees of Synchrony 377
9.6?Wave Pipelining?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
9.7 Pitfalls and Fallacies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
Summary 381
Exercises 383

Chapter 10 Datapaths
10.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
10.2 Addition/Subtraction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
10.2.1 Single-Bit Addition 388
10.2.2 Carry-Propagate Addition 392
10.2.3 Subtraction 416
10.2.4 Multiple-Input Addition 416
10.2.5 Flagged Prefix Adders 417
10.3?One/Zero Detectors?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
10.4?Comparators ..............................?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
10.4.1 Magnitude Comparator 420
10.4.2 Equality Comparator 420
10.4.3 K=A+B Comparator 421
10.5?Counters ......................?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421

10.5.1 Binary Counters 422

10.5.2 Fast Binary Counters 423

10.5.3 Ring and Johnson Counters 424

10.5.4 Linear-Feedback Shift Registers 424
10.6?Boolean Logical Operations?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
10.7?Coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426

10.7.1 Parity 426

10.7.2. Error-Correcting Codes 426

10.7.3. Gray codes 428

10.7.4. XOR/XNOR Circuit Forms 429
10.8?Shifters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430

10.8.1 Funnel Shifter 431

10.8.2 Barrel Shifter 433

10.8.3 Alternative Shift Functions 434
10.9?Multiplication ..................................................................................................?. . . . . 434

10.9.1 Unsigned Array Multiplication 436

10.9.2 Two's Complement Array Multiplication 437

10.9.3 Booth Encoding 438

10.9.4 Column Addition 443

10.9.5 Final Addition 447

10.9.6 Fused Mulitply-Add 448

10.9.7 Summary 448

10.10 Parallel-Prefix Computations ..........................................................................................449

10.11 Pitfalls and Fallacies ......................................................................................................451
Summary 452
Exercises 452

Chapter 11 Memories
11.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
11.2?SRAM ......................?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456
11.2.1 SRAM Cells 457
11.2.2 Row Circuitry 464
11.2.3 Column Circuitry 468
11.2.4 Multi-Ported SRAM and Register Files 472
11.2.5 Large SRAMs 473

11.2.6 Low-Power SRAMs 475

11.2.7 Area, Delay and Power of RAMs and Register Files 478
11.3?DRAM .....................?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480

11.3.1 Subarray Architectures 481

11.3.2 Column Circuitry 483

11.3.3 EMbedded DRAM 484
11.4? Read-Only Memory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485
11.4.1 Programmable ROMs 487
11.4.2 NAND ROMs 488
11.4.3 Flash 489
11.5?Serial Access Memories?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491
11.5.1 Shift Registers 491
11.5.2 Queues (FIFO, LIFO) 491
11.6?Content-Addressable Memory?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493
11.7?Programmable Logic Arrays?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495
11.8?Robust Memory Design?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499
11.8.1 Redundancy 499
11.8.2 Error Correcting Codes (ECC) 501
11.8.3 Radiation Hardening 501
11.9?Historical Perspective?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501
Summary 503
Exercises 504

Chapter 12 Packaging, Power, Clock, I/O
12.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507
12.2?Packaging and Cooling?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507
12.2.1 Package Options 507
12.2.2 Chip-to-Package Connections 509
12.2.3 Package Parasitics 510
12.2.4 Heat Dissipation 510
12.2.5 Temperature Sensors 511
12.3?Power Distribution?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513
12.3.1 On-Chip Power Distribution Network 514
12.3.2 IR Drops 515
12.3.3 L di/dt Noise 516

12.3.4 On-Chip Bypass Capacitance 517

12.3.5 Power Network Modeling 518

12.3.6 Power Supply Filtering 522

12.3.7 Charge Pumps 522

12.3.8 Sustrate Noise 523

12.3.9 Energy Scavenging 523
12.4?Clocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524
12.4.1 Definitions 524
12.4.2 Clock System Architecture 526
12.4.3 Global Clock Generation 527

12.4.4. Global Clock Distribution 529

12.4.5 Local Clock Gaters 533

12.4.6 Clock Skew Budgets 535

12.4.7 Adaptive Deskewing 537
12.5?PLLs and?DLLs?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 538
12.5.1 PLLs 538
12.5.2 DLLs 545

12.5.3 Pitfalls 547
12.6?I/O.............................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 548

12.6.1 Basic I/O Pad Circuits 549

12.6.2 Electrostatic Discharge Protection 551

12.6.3 Example:? MOSIS I/O Pads 552

12.6.4 Mixed-Voltage I/O 554
12.7?High-Speed Links?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555

12.7.1 High-Speed I/O channels 555

12.7.2. Channel Noise and Interference 558

12.7.3 High-Speed Transmitters and Receivers 559

12.7.4 Synchronous Data Transmission 564

12.7.5 Clock Recovery in Source-Synchronous Systems 564

12.7.6 Clock Recoveryin Mesochronous Systems 566

12.7.7 Clock Recovery in Pleisochronous Systems 568
12.8 Random Circuits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568
12.8.1 True Random Number Generators 568
12.8.2 Chip Identification 569
12.9?Pitfalls and Fallacies?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 570
Summary 571
Exercises 572

Chapter 13 Methodology
13.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573
13.2?Structured Design Strategies?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575
13.2.1 A Software Radio-A System Example 576
13.2.2 Hierarchy 578
13.2.3 Regularity 581
13.2.4 Modularity 583
13.2.5 Locality 584

13.2.6 Summary 585
13.3?Design Methods?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 585
13.3.1 Microprocessor/DSP 585
13.3.2 Programmable Logic 586
13.3.3 Gate Array and Sea of Gates Design 589
13.3.4 Cell-Based Design 590
13.3.5 Full Custom Design 592
13.3.6 Platform-Based Design-System on a Chip 593
13.3.7 Sumary 594
13.4?Design Flows?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 594
13.4.1 Behavioral Synthesis Design flow (ASIC Design Flow) 595
13.4.2 Automated Layout Generation 599
13.4.3 Mixed-Signal or custom-Design Flow 60
13.5?Design Economics?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 604
13.5.1 Non-Recurring Engineering costs (NREs) 605
13.5.2 Recurring Costs 607
13.5.3 Fixed Costs 608

13.5.4 Schedule 609

13.5.5 Personpower 611

13.5.6 Project Management 611

13.5.7 Design Reuse 612
13.6?Data Sheets and Documentation?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 613
13.6.1 The Summary 613
13.6.2 Pinout 613
13.6.3 Description of Operation 613
13.6.4 DC Specifications 613

13.6.5 AC Specifications 614

13.6.6 Package Diagram 614

13.6.7 Principles of Operation Manual 614

13.6.8 User Manual 614
13.7?Pitfalls and Fallacies?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615
Exercises 615

Chapter 14 Test
14.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 617

14.1.1 Logic Verification 618

14.1.2 Debugging 620

14.1.3 Manufacturing Tests 622
14.2 Testers, Test Fixtures and Test Programs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 624
14.2.1 Testers and Test Fixtures 624
14.2.2 Test Programs 626
14.2.3 Handlers 627
14.3?Logic Verification Principles?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 628
14.3.1 Test Vectors 628
14.3.2 Testbenches and Harnesses 629
14.3.3 Regression Testing 629
14.3.4 Version Control 630
14.3.5 Bug Tracking 631
14.4?Silicon Debug Principles?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 631
14.5 Manufacturing Test Principles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 634
14.5.1 Fault Models 635
14.5.2 Observability 637
14.5.3 Controllability 637
14.5.4 Repeatability 637
14.5.5 Survivability 637
14.5.6 Fault Coverage 638
14.5.7 Automatic Test Pattern Generation (ATPG) 638

14.5.8 Delay Fault Testing 638
14.6?Design for Testability?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 639
14.6.1 Ad Hoc Testing 639
14.6.2 Scan Design 640
14.6.3 Built-In Self-Test (BIST) 642
14.6.4 IDDQ Testing 645
14.6.5 Design for Manufacturability 645
14.7 Boundary Scan.....................?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 646
14.8?Testing in a University Environment?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 647
14.9 Pitfalls and Fallacies ......................................................................................................648

Summary 655

Exercices 655

Chapter 15 Fabrication
15.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 657
15.2?CMOS Technologies ?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .................................658
15.2.1 Wafer Formation 658
15.2.2 Photolithography 659
15.2.3 Well and Channel Formation 661

15.2.4 Silicon dioxide 663

15.2.5 Isolation 664

15.2.6 Gate Oxide 665

15.2.7 Gate and Source/Drain Formations 666

15.2.8 Contacts and Metallization 668

15.2.9 Passivation 670

15.2.10 Metrology 670
15.3 Layout Design Rules?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 671
15.3.1 Design Rule Background 671
15.3.2 Scribe Line and Other Structures 674
15.3.3 MOSIS Scalable CMOS Design Rules 675
15.3.4 Micron Design Rules 676
15.4 CMOS?Process Enhancements?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 677
15.4.1 Transistors 677
15.4.2 Interconnect 680
15.4.3 Circuit Elements 682
15.4.4 Beyond conventional CMOS

15.5? Technology-Related CAD Issues ......................................................................688
15.5.1 Design Rule Checking (DRC) 689
15.5.2 Circuit Extraction 690
15.6?Manufacturing Issues?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 691
15.6.1 Antenna Rules 691
15.6.2 Layer Density Rules 692
15.6.3 Resolution Enhancement Rules
15.6.4 Metal Slotting Rules 693
15.6.5 Yield Enhancement Guidelines 693
15.7 Pitfalls and Fallacies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 694

15.8 Historical Perspective ....................................................................................695
Summary 697
Exercises 697

References 699
Index 731
Credits 751

Product Details

  • publication date: 05/04/2010
  • ISBN13: 9780321696946
  • Format: Paperback
  • Number Of Pages: 864
  • ID: 9780321696946
  • weight: 1380
  • ISBN10: 0321696948
  • edition: Global ed of 4th revised ed

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