Integrated Membrane Systems and Processes

Integrated Membrane Systems and Processes

By: Catherine Charcosset (author), Angelo Basile (author)Hardback

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Description

The book examines the possibility of integrating different membrane unit operations (microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis and gas separation) in the same industrial cycle or in combination with conventional separation systems. It gives careful analysis of the technical aspects, and the possible fields of industrial development. The book reviews many original solutions in water desalination, agro-food productions and wastewater treatments, highlighting the advantages achievable in terms of product quality, compactness, rationalization and optimization of productive cycles, reduction of environmental impact and energy saving. Also included are examples of membrane reactors and their integration with a fuel cell; polymeric membranes in the integrated gasification combined cycle power plants; integrating a membrane reformer into a solar system; and potential application of membrane integrated systems in the fusion reactor fuel cycle. With detailed analysis and broad coverage, the book is divided into two sections: Bio-applications and Inorganic Applications.

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Contents

List of Contributors ix Preface xi 1 Ultrafiltration, Microfiltration, Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis in Integrated Membrane Processes 1 Catherine Charcosset 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Membrane Processes 2 1.2.1 Ultrafiltration, Microfiltration and Nanofiltration 2 1.2.2 Reverse Osmosis 3 1.2.3 Membrane Distillation 3 1.2.4 Electrodialysis 4 1.2.5 Membrane Bioreactors 5 1.3 Combination of Various Membrane Processes 6 1.3.1 Pressure-Driven Separation Processes 6 1.3.2 Membrane Distillation and Pressure-Driven Membrane Processes 12 1.3.3 Electrodialysis and Pressure-Driven Membrane Processes 13 1.3.4 Membrane Bioreactors and Pressure-Driven Separation Processes 14 1.3.5 Other Processes and Pressure-Driven Separation Processes 15 1.4 Conclusion 17 List of Abbreviations 18 References 18 2 Bioseparations Using Integrated Membrane Processes 23 Raja Ghosh 2.1 Introduction 23 2.2 Integrated Bioseparation Processes Involving Microfiltration 24 2.3 Integrated Bioseparation Processes Involving Ultrafiltration 28 2.4 Conclusion 31 References 32 3 Integrated Membrane Processes in the Food Industry 35 Alfredo Cassano 3.1 Introduction 35 3.2 Fruit Juice Processing 36 3.2.1 Fruit Juice Clarification 36 3.2.2 Fruit Juice Concentration 38 3.2.3 Integrated Systems in Fruit Juice Processing 40 3.3 Milk and Whey Processing 48 3.3.1 Integrated Systems in Milk Processing 48 3.3.2 Integrated Systems in Cheesemaking 51 3.3.3 Integrated Systems in Whey Processing 52 3.4 Conclusions 54 List of Abbreviations 54 References 55 4 Continuous Hydrolysis of Lignocellulosic Biomass via Integrated Membrane Processes 61 Mohammadmahdi Malmali and S. Ranil Wickramasinghe 4.1 Introduction 61 4.2 Continuous Enzymatic Hydrolysis 63 4.3 Integrated Submerged Membrane System 65 4.4 Sugar Concentration 66 4.5 Sugar Concentration and Hydrolysate Detoxification by Nanofiltration 68 4.6 Statistical Design of Experiments 69 4.7 Analysis of Variance using Response Surface Methodology 69 4.8 Future Challenges 74 4.9 Conclusion 75 Acknowledgements 75 List of Abbreviations 75 List of Symbols 75 References 76 5 Integrated Membrane Processes for the Preparation of Emulsions, Particles and Bubbles 79 Goran T. Vladisavljevi'c 5.1 Introduction 79 5.1.1 Membrane Dispersion Processes 80 5.1.2 Membrane Treatment of Dispersions 81 5.1.3 Comparison of Membrane and Microfluidic Drop Generation Processes 82 5.1.4 Comparison of Membrane and Conventional Homogenisation Processes 83 5.2 Membranes for Preparation of Emulsions and Particles 84 5.2.1 SPG Membrane 84 5.2.2 Microengineered Membranes 90 5.3 Production of Emulsions Using SPG Membrane 92 5.4 Production of Emulsions Using Microengineered Membranes 96 5.5 Factors Affecting Droplet Size in DME 98 5.5.1 Effect of Transmembrane Pressure and Flux 99 5.5.2 Influence of Pore (Channel) Size and Shear Stress on the Membrane Surface 101 5.5.3 Influence of Surfactant 101 5.6 Factors Affecting Droplet Size in PME 103 5.7 Integration of ME with Solid/Semi-Solid Particle Fabrication 104 5.7.1 Integration of ME and Crosslinking of Gel-forming Polymers 104 5.7.2 Integration of ME and Melt Solidification 114 5.7.3 Integration of ME and Polymerisation 115 5.7.4 Integration of ME and Solvent Evaporation/Extraction 118 5.8 Integration of Membrane Permeation and Gas Dispersion 120 5.9 Integration of Membrane Micromixing and Nanoprecipitation 121 5.10 Conclusions 123 List of Acronyms 123 Symbols 124 Subscripts 126 References 126 6 Nanofiltration in Integrated Membrane Processes 141 Bart Van der Bruggen 6.1 Introduction 141 6.2 Pretreatment for Nanofiltration 144 6.3 Nanofiltration as a Pretreatment Method 146 6.4 Processes in Series 148 6.5 Integrated Processes 150 6.6 Hybrid Processes 153 6.7 Nanofiltration Cascades 156 6.8 Conclusions 158 List of Abbreviations 159 References 159 7 Seawater, Brackish Waters, and Natural Waters Treatment with Hybrid Membrane Processes 165 Maxime Ponti'e and Catherine Charcosset 7.1 Introduction 165 7.2 Desalination Market 166 7.2.1 Growth of Desalination Capacity Worldwide 166 7.2.2 Desalination Technologies 167 7.3 Seawater and Brackish Waters Composition 168 7.3.1 Seawater Composition 168 7.3.2 Brackish Water versus Seawater 168 7.3.3 Product Water Specification 170 7.4 Desalination with Integrated Membrane Processes 170 7.4.1 MF/UF RO 170 7.4.2 NF versus RO 172 7.4.3 NF RO 174 7.5 Natural Water Treatment Using Hybrid Membrane Processes 176 7.5.1 Natural Organic Matter 178 7.5.2 Arsenic 183 7.5.3 Other Species 186 7.6 Conclusion 190 List of Acronyms 191 References 192 8 Wastewater Treatment Using Integrated Membrane Processes 197 Jinsong Zhang and Anthony G. Fane 8.1 Introduction 197 8.2 IMS Application for Wastewater Treatment: Current Status 198 8.2.1 IMS for Textile Industrial Wastewater: Target to Zero Discharge 198 8.2.2 Integrated Pressure-Driven Membrane Process for Municipal Wastewater Reclamation 200 8.2.3 Integrated Multiple Function Driven Membrane Process for Wastewater Reclamation 212 8.3 Strategic Co-location Concept for Integrated Process Involving RO, PRO, and Wastewater Treatment 219 8.4 Conclusions 221 Nomenclature 221 List of Greek letters 222 References 222 9 Membrane Reactor: An Integrated Membrane + Reaction System 231 Angelo Basile, Adolfo Iulianelli and Simona Liguori 9.1 Introduction 231 9.2 Hydrogen Economy 232 9.2.1 Why Membrane Reactors? 232 9.3 Membrane Reactors 235 9.3.1 Membrane Reactors Utilization 236 9.4 Membranes for Membrane Reactors 236 9.4.1 Ceramic Membranes 237 9.4.2 Zeolite Membranes 237 9.4.3 Carbon Membranes 238 9.4.4 Metal Membranes 238 9.4.5 Composite Membranes 239 9.5 Mass Transport Mechanisms for Inorganic Membranes 239 9.6 Applications of Inorganic Membrane Reactors 241 9.6.1 Recent Advances on Hydrogen Production in MRs from Steam Reforming of Renewable Sources 241 9.7 Conclusions 244 List of Symbols 245 List of Abbreviations 245 References 246 10 Membranes for IGCC Power Plants 255 Kamran Ghasemzadeh, Angelo Basile, and Seyyed Mohammad Sadati Tilebon 10.1 Introduction 255 10.2 IGCC Technology for Power Generation 256 10.3 Application of Membranes in an IGCC Power Plants 257 10.3.1 Hydrogen Selective Membranes 264 10.3.2 Oxygen Selective Membranes 272 10.3.3 CO2 Selective Membranes 275 10.4 Conclusion and Future Trends 280 Abbreviations 280 References 281 11 Integration of a Membrane Reactor with a Fuel Cell 285 Viktor Hacker, Merit Bodner, and Alexander Schenk 11.1 Introduction 285 11.2 Fuel Cell Basics 286 11.2.1 Reaction Mechanisms 287 11.2.2 Electrochemical Basics of the Fuel Cell 289 11.3 Different Types of Fuel Cells 292 11.3.1 Methods of Classification 292 11.3.2 Fuel Cell Types 294 11.4 Contaminations of the PEFC 295 11.4.1 Anode Gas Stream 295 11.4.2 Cathode Gas Stream 297 11.4.3 Contaminations of Components 298 11.5 Methods to Avoid Poisoning 298 11.5.1 Increasing the Fuel Cell Tolerance towards Contaminations 299 11.5.2 Avoiding Contaminations 300 11.6 Conclusion 302 List of Abbreviations 302 List of Symbols 302 References 303 12 Solar Membrane Reactor 307 Kamran Ghasemzadeh, Angelo Basile, and Abbas Aghaeinejad-Meybodi 12.1 Introduction 307 12.2 Configurations of Solar MR Systems 308 12.2.1 Solar MRs for Water and Wastewater Treatment 309 12.2.2 Solar MRs for Hydrogen Production 312 12.3 Solar MRs Application from a Modeling Point of View 319 12.3.1 Water Decomposition Literature 319 12.3.2 Steam Reforming Literature 320 12.4 Solar MRs Application from an Experimental Point of View 322 12.4.1 Water Decomposition Literature 322 12.4.2 Water Electrolysis Literature 329 12.4.3 Steam Reforming Literature 331 12.5 The Main Challenges 334 12.6 Conclusion and Future Trends 335 List of Abbreviations 335 References 336 13 Membrane-Adsorption Integrated Systems/Processes 343 Sayed S. Madaeni and Ehsan Salehi 13.1 Introduction 343 13.2 Adsorption Pretreatment for Membranes 345 13.3 Integrated Membrane-Adsorption Systems 347 13.3.1 LPM-Adsorption Integration 348 13.3.2 Membrane-Adsorption Bioreactors 352 13.3.3 MABR Operating Conditions 354 13.3.4 MABR Applications 355 13.4 Membrane Adsorbents 356 13.4.1 Protein-Adsorbent Membranes 357 13.4.2 Metal-Adsorbent Membranes 358 13.4.3 Imprinted-Membrane Adsorbents 360 13.4.4 Thin Membrane Adsorbents 362 13.4.5 Modeling Aspects 362 13.4.6 Regeneration and Reuse 365 13.5 Adsorption Post-treatment for Membranes 366 References 367 Index 375

Product Details

  • publication date: 22/01/2016
  • ISBN13: 9781118739082
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 424
  • ID: 9781118739082
  • weight: 874
  • ISBN10: 1118739086

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