Diseases transmitted by insects continue to have a major impact on human populations. Malaria, dengue, onchocerciasis, sleeping sickness and leishmaniasis all adversely affect man. Malaria is one of the most important causes of child mortality and reduces economic development in many countries, with agricultural productivity often greatly reduced, as many vectors are active in the wet season favourable for crop production. Vector control is crucial to reduce the extent to which drugs are needed to treat the diseases, as the parasite can become resistant, or the drugs are often too expensive for those living in rural areas and urban slums most affected by these diseases. Chemical control of vectors is often the only method that can reduce vector populations in a disease epidemic, but with vectors developing resistance to insecticides, there is increasing awareness that a single control method is often insufficient and also that chemical control must be integrated where possible with other control measures.
In Integrated Vector Management, Graham Matthews covers the main chemical methods of vector control, including the use of indoor residual spraying, space treatments, the use of treated bed nets and larviciding, but also stresses the importance of drainage schemes and improvement of houses to prevent access of indoor vectors, techniques that have largely been responsible for reducing the risk of vector borne diseases in Europe and the USA. This book combines practical information from successful vector control programmes, including early use of DDT, and recent research into a vital resource for all those now involved in combating insect vector borne diseases. Integrated Vector Management is an essential tool, not only for medical entomologists and those directly involved in government health departments, but also for all those who provide the skills and management needed to operate successful area-wide vector management programmes. Libraries in all universities and research establishments world-wide, where biological sciences, medicine and agriculture are studied and taught should have multiple copies of this important book.
Graham Matthews is Emeritus Professor of Pest Management at Imperial College, London, UK and, since 1972, he has advised the World Health Organization on the equipment used for vector control. Over the last decade he has also been Technical Director of the NGO, Yaounde Initiative Foundation and has been directly involved in vector control in Cameroon.
Preface Acknowledgements 1 Introduction Insect vectors Distribution of vectors Mosquitoes Anopheles spp. Aedes spp. Culex spp. Flies Simulium spp. Glossina spp. tsetse flies Phlebotomine sand flies Musca domestica and other synanthropic spp. Other vectors Triatomine bugs Chemical control Hazard and toxicity Toxicity Insecticides WHO recommendations Formulations Packaging and storage Waste disposal Conclusion References 2 Indoor Residual Spraying Equipment for indoor residual spraying Spray volume Insecticides Operator exposure Resident exposure Implementation of indoor residual spraying Village intervention teams Planning programmes Insecticides Equipment required Storage Training Monitoring Environmental assessment Evaluation Economics Conclusion References 3 Space Treatment Requirements for space treatments Equipment for space treatments Portable equipment Mist treatments Vehicle mounted equipment Aerial application Insecticides Planning Assessment of space sprays Monitoring Conclusion References 4 Bed Nets and Treated Clothing Material Mesh size Shape Insecticide Insecticide impregnation Impact of washing nets Distribution of nets Trial data Operational use Treated clothing Impregnated sheeting Conclusion References 5 Larviciding Larvicide application Mosquito control Oils Insecticides Application of mosquito larvicides Knapsack spraying Motorised equipment Aerial application for mosquito control Application of aerial sprays Application of granules Ground application Aerial application Monitoring Black flies Insecticides Aerial application of larvicides for black fly control Boat application Applications in small streams Monitoring Conclusion References 6 Integrated Vector Management Cultural controls House design Drainage and water management schemes Personal protection Impregnated clothing Insecticide treated bed nets Repellents Barrier treatments Implementation of IVM An example of IVM at Copper mines in Zambia Costs Development of new technology Conclusion References 7 Other Insects Flies, Cockroaches and Bed Bugs Flies Refuse dumps Space treatments Mist treatments Cockroaches Traps Sprays Baits Bed bugs Conclusion References 8 Looking Ahead New insecticides? Can insecticides with new modes of action be developed? Insecticide resistance Bio-pesticides Spray technology Electrostatic spraying? Different sprayers? Different nozzles? Using a paint Innovative application technique Genetically modified mosquitoes Attractants Urbanisation Economics Conclusion References Appendix A: Calibration Appendix B: Conversion Tables Index