Integration of Ferroelectric and Piezoelectric Thin Films: Concepts and Applications for Microsystems

Integration of Ferroelectric and Piezoelectric Thin Films: Concepts and Applications for Microsystems

By: Emmanuel Defay (editor)Hardback

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Description

This book contains four parts. The first one is dedicated to concepts. It starts with the definitions and examples of what is piezo-pyro and ferroelectricity by considering the symmetry of the material. Thereafter, these properties are described within the framework of Thermodynamics. The second part described the way to integrate these materials in Microsystems. The third part is dedicated to characterization: composition, structure and a special focused on electrical behaviors. The last part gives a survey of state of the art applications using integrated piezo or/and ferroelectric films.

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Contents

Preface xiii Emmanuel DEFAY General Introduction xvii Chapter 1. Dielectricity, Piezoelectricity, Pyroelectricity and Ferroelectricity 1 Emmanuel DEFAY 1.1. Crystal structure 1 1.2. Piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity and ferroelectricity definitions 9 1.3. Simplified examples 10 1.4. Three typical structures: wurtzite, ilmenite and perovskite 16 1.5. Bibliography 23 Chapter 2. Thermodynamic Study: a Structural Approach 25 Emmanuel DEFAY 2.1. History 25 2.2. Revisiting statistical thermodynamics 26 2.3. State functions 41 2.4. Linear equations -?npiezoelectricity 44 2.5. Non linear equations -?nelectrostriction 47 2.6. Bibliography 48 Chapter 3. Ferroelectric-paraelectric Phase Transition Thermodynamic Modeling 49 Emmanuel DEFAY 3.1. Hypothesis on Gibbs' elastic energy 49 3.2. Second-order transition 52 3.3. Effects of stresses 58 3.4. First-order transition 60 3.5. Conclusion 65 3.6. Bibliography 65 Chapter 4. Mechanical Formalism 67 Emmanuel DEFAY 4.1. Introduction 67 4.2. Hooke's law 67 4.3. Definitions of local strains 69 4.4. Definition of local strains 77 4.5. Stress-strain relation 83 4.6. Elastic energy density 86 4.7. Expression of the elasticity tensor as a function of elements of symmetry 89 4.8. Bibliography 93 Chapter 5. Dielectric Formalism 95 Emmanuel DEFAY 5.1. Introduction 95 5.2. The dielectric effect seen by Faraday 95 5.3. Electric polarization and displacement 99 5.4. The dielectric constant 104 5.5. The local field in dielectrics: polarization catastrophe 105 5.6. Dielectric relaxation 109 5.7. Electric energy density 115 5.8. Bibliography 117 Chapter 6. Piezoelectric Formalism 119 Emmanuel DEFAY and Mathieu PIJOLAT 6.1. Thermodynamic equations 119 6.2. Reducing coefficients using crystal symmetry 121 6.3. One-dimensional microscopic model 126 6.4. Electromechanical coupling coefficient 130 6.5. Piezoelectric coefficients of key materials 134 6.6. Calculating coupling as a function of crystal orientation 136 6.7. Piezoelectric coefficients in the case of ferroelectric materials 138 6.8. Relation between piezoelectric formalism and matter 139 6.9. Bibliography 141 Chapter 7. Acoustic Formalism 143 Alexandre REINHARDT 7.1. Propagation of bulk waves 143 7.2. Bulk wave resonator 163 7.3. Bulk acoustic waves filter 185 7.4. Bibliography 190 Chapter 8. Electrostrictive Formalism 191 Emmanuel DEFAY 8.1. Foundations of electrostriction 191 8.2. Thermodynamic model of electrostriction - case of the resonator 192 8.3. The electrostriction tensor 195 8.4. Microscopic model of electrostriction 197 8.5. Electrostrictive resonator 202 8.6. Bibliography 206 Chapter 9. Electric Characterization 207 Emmanuel DEFAY, Gwenael LE RHUN and Emilien BOUYSSOU 9.1. Static piezoelectric characterization of thin films 207 9.2. Piezoelectric and atomic force microscopy 215 9.3. Ferroelectric measurement 225 9.4. Dielectric measurement 232 9.5. Leakage current in metal/insulator/metal structures 236 9.6. Bibliography 245 Chapter 10. Piezoelectric Resonators and Filters 249 Alexandre REINHARDT and Christophe BILLARD 10.1. Acoustic resonators: principle and history 249 10.2. BAW technology 269 10.3. CRF technology 283 10.4. Bibliography 291 Chapter 11. High Overtone Bulk Acoustic Resonator (HBAR) 297 Mathieu PIJOLAT, Chrystel DEGUET and Sylvain BALLANDRAS 11.1. About HBAR 297 11.2. Technology 302 11.3. Examples of implementations 305 11.4. Conclusions about HBAR 312 11.5. Bibliography 313 Chapter 12. Electrostrictive Resonators 315 Alexandre VOLATIER, Brice IVIRA, Christophe ZINCK, Nizar BEN HASSINE and Emmanuel DEFAY 12.1. Introduction 315 12.2. State of the art 316 12.3. Experimental implementations 326 12.4. Simulation of a filter with electrostrictive resonators 341 12.5. Status of perovskite electrostrictive resonators 342 12.6. PZT-based tunable frequency ferroelectric acoustic resonator 344 12.7. Nonlinear effect in piezoelectric AlN 348 12.8. Conclusion with electrostriction 354 12.9. Bibliography 355 Chapter 13. Thin Film Piezoelectric Transducers 357 Matthieu CUEFF, Patrice REY, Fabien FILHOL and Emmanuel DEFAY 13.1. Introduction 357 13.2. State of the art 358 13.3. Resonant membranes 361 13.4. Resonant micromirror 366 13.5. Piezoelectric micro-switch 371 13.6. Sign of piezoelectric coefficients 391 13.7. Bibliography 394 List of Authors 397 Index 399

Product Details

  • publication date: 11/02/2011
  • ISBN13: 9781848212398
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 422
  • ID: 9781848212398
  • weight: 788
  • ISBN10: 1848212399

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