Integration of Renewable Sources of Energy (2nd Edition)

Integration of Renewable Sources of Energy (2nd Edition)

By: Felix A. Farret (author), M. Godoy Simoes (author)Hardback

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Description

The latest tools and techniques for addressing the challenges of 21st century power generation, renewable sources and distribution systems Renewable energy technologies and systems are advancing by leaps and bounds, and it s only a matter of time before renewables replace fossil fuel and nuclear energy sources. Written for practicing engineers, researchers and students alike, this book discusses state-of-the art mathematical and engineering tools for the modeling, simulation and control of renewable and mixed energy systems and related power electronics. Computational methods for multi-domain modeling of integrated energy systems and the solution of power electronics engineering problems are described in detail. Chapters follow a consistent format, featuring a brief introduction to the theoretical background, a description of problems to be solved, as well as objectives to be achieved. Multiple block diagrams, electrical circuits, and mathematical analysis and/or computer code are provided throughout. And each chapter concludes with discussions of lessons learned, recommendations for further studies, and suggestions for experimental work. Key topics covered in detail include: * Integration of the most usual sources of electrical power and related thermal systems * Equations for energy systems and power electronics focusing on state-space and power circuit oriented simulations * MATLAB(R) and Simulink(R) models and functions and their interactions with real-world implementations using microprocessors and microcontrollers * Numerical integration techniques, transfer-function modeling, harmonic analysis, and power quality performance assessment * MATLAB(R)/Simulink(R), Power Systems Toolbox, and PSIM for the simulation of power electronic circuits, including for renewable energy sources such as wind and solar sources Written by distinguished experts in the field, Integration of Renewable Sources of Energy, 2nd Edition is a valuable working resource for practicing engineers interested in power electronics, power systems, power quality, and alternative or renewable energy. It is also a valuable text/reference for undergraduate and graduate electrical engineering students.

About Author

Felix A. Farret, PhD, is a Professor in the Department of Processing Energy, at the Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil. He is the Coordinator of the Center of Excellence in Energy and Power Systems (CEESP) at Federal University of Santa Maria. He has been involved with R&D for industrial electronics and alternative energy sources for more than four decades. M. Godoy Simoes, PhD, IEEE Fellow, is a Professor in the Electrical Engineering Department at Colorado School of Mines. Dr. Sim??es pioneered the application of neural networks and fuzzy logic in power electronics, motor drives and renewable energy systems.

Contents

Foreword for the First Edition xix Foreword for the Second Edition xxi Preface for the First Edition xxiii Preface for the Second Edition xxvii Acknowledgements xxxi 1 Alternative Sources of Energy 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Renewable Sources of Energy 2 1.3 Renewable Energy versus Alternative Energy 4 1.4 Planning and Development of Integrated Energy 10 1.4.1 Grid ]Supplied Electricity 10 1.4.2 Load 11 1.4.3 Distributed Generation 12 1.5 Renewable Energy Economics 13 1.5.1 Calculation of Electricity Generation Costs 14 1.5.1.1 Existing Plants 14 1.5.1.2 New Plants 15 1.5.1.3 Investment Costs 15 1.5.1.4 Capital Recovery Factor 16 1.6 European Targets for Renewable Powers 16 1.6.1 Demand ]Side Management Options 17 1.6.2 Supply ]Side Management Options 19 1.7 Integrating Renewable Energy Sources 21 1.7.1 Integration of Renewable Energy in the United States 23 1.7.2 Energy Recovery Time 24 1.7.3 Sustainability 26 1.8 Modern Electronic Controls for Power Systems 29 1.9 Issues Related to Alternative Sources of Energy 31 References 35 2 Principles of Thermodynamics 37 2.1 Introduction 37 2.2 State of a Thermodynamic System 38 2.2.1 Heating Value 46 2.2.2 First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics and Thermal Efficiency 48 2.3 Fundamental Laws and Principles 49 2.3.1 Example of Efficiency in a Power Plant 51 2.3.2 Practical Problems Associated with Carnot Cycle Plant 54 2.3.3 Rankine Cycle for Power Plants 55 2.3.4 Brayton Cycle for Power Plants 58 2.3.5 Geothermal Energy 60 2.3.6 Kalina Cycle 61 2.3.7 Energy, Power, and System Balance 62 2.4 Examples of Energy Balance 66 2.4.1 Simple Residential Energy Balance 66 2.4.2 Refrigerator Energy Balance 67 2.4.3 Energy Balance for a Water Heater 68 2.4.4 Rock Bed Energy Balance 70 2.4.5 Array of Solar Collectors 70 2.4.6 Heat Pump 71 2.4.7 Heat Transfer Analysis 72 2.4.8 Simple Steam Power Turbine Analysis 73 2.5 Planet Earth: A Closed But Not Isolated System 77 References 79 3 Hydroelectric Power Plants 81 3.1 Introduction 81 3.2 Determination of the Available Power 82 3.3 Expedient Topographical and Hydrological Measurements 84 3.3.1 Simple Measurement of Elevation 84 3.3.2 Global Positioning Systems for Elevation Measurement 85 3.3.3 Pipe Losses 86 3.3.4 Expedient Measurements of Stream Water Flow 87 3.3.4.1 Measurement Using a Float 87 3.3.4.2 Measurement Using a Rectangular Spillway 88 3.3.4.3 Measurement Using a Triangular Spillway 89 3.3.4.4 Measurement Based on the Dilution of Salt in the Water 89 3.3.5 Civil Works 92 3.4 Hydropower Generator Set 93 3.4.1 Regulation Systems 93 3.4.2 Butterfly Valves 93 3.5 Waterwheels 93 3.6 Turbines 96 3.6.1 Pelton Turbine 97 3.6.2 Francis Turbine 99 3.6.3 Michell-Banki Turbine 102 3.6.4 Kaplan or Hydraulic Propeller Turbine 103 3.6.5 Deriaz Turbines 105 3.6.6 Water Pumps Working as Turbines 106 3.6.7 Specification of Hydro Turbines 107 References 109 4 Wind Power Plants 111 4.1 Introduction 111 4.2 Appropriate Location 112 4.2.1 Evaluation of Wind Intensity 112 4.2.1.1 Meteorological Mapping 116 4.2.1.2 Weibull Probability Distribution 118 4.2.1.3 Analysis of Wind Speed by Visualization 121 4.2.1.4 Technique of the Balloon 123 4.2.2 Topography 124 4.2.3 Purpose of the Energy Generated 124 4.2.4 Accessibility 124 4.3 Wind Power 125 4.3.1 Wind Power Corrections 126 4.3.2 Wind Distribution 128 4.4 General Classification of Wind Turbines 129 4.4.1 Rotor Turbines 131 4.4.2 Multiple ]Blade Turbines 131 4.4.3 Drag Turbines (Savonius) 132 4.4.4 Lifting Turbines 133 4.4.4.1 Starting System 134 4.4.4.2 Rotor 134 4.4.4.3 Lifting 134 4.4.4.4 Speed Multipliers 134 4.4.4.5 Braking System 135 4.4.4.6 Generation System 135 4.4.4.7 Horizontal ] and Vertical ]Axis Turbines 135 4.4.5 Magnus Turbines 136 4.4.6 System TARP-WARP 136 4.4.7 Accessories 139 4.5 Generators and Speed Control Used in Wind Power Energy 140 4.6 Analysis of Small Generating Systems 143 4.6.1 Maximization of Cp 145 References 148 5 Thermosolar Power Plants 151 5.1 Introduction 151 5.2 Water Heating by Solar Energy 152 5.3 Heat Transfer Calculation of Thermally Isolated Reservoirs 155 5.3.1 Steady ]State Thermal Calculations 155 5.3.2 Transient ]State Thermal Calculations 156 5.3.3 Practical Approximate Measurements of the Thermal Constants R and C in Water Reservoirs 158 5.4 Heating Domestic Water 159 5.5 Thermosolar Energy 160 5.5.1 Parabolic Trough 161 5.5.2 Parabolic Dish 163 5.5.3 Solar Power Tower 164 5.5.4 Production of Hydrogen 166 5.6 Economics Analysis of Thermosolar Energy 168 References 170 6 Photovoltaic Power Plants 173 6.1 Introduction 173 6.2 Solar Energy 174 6.3 Conversion of Electricity by Photovoltaic Effect 176 6.3.1 Photovoltaic Cells 177 6.4 Equivalent Models for Photovoltaic Panels 178 6.4.1 Dark ]Current Electric Parameters of a Photovoltaic Panel 179 6.4.1.1 Measurement of I 180 6.4.1.2 Measurement of Rp 180 6.4.1.3 Measurement of Id 181 6.4.1.4 Measurement of 182 6.4.1.5 Measurement of Is 183 6.4.1.6 Measurement of Rs 183 6.4.2 Power, Utilization, and Efficiency of a PV Cell 183 6.5 Solar Cell Output Characteristics 188 6.5.1 Dependence of a PV Cell Characteristic on Temperature and PV Cells 190 6.5.2 Model of a PV Panel Consisting of n Cells in Series 193 6.5.3 Model of a PV Panel Consisting of n Cells in Parallel 195 6.6 Photovoltaic Systems 196 6.6.1 Irradiance Area 197 6.6.2 Solar Modules and Panels 198 6.6.3 Aluminum Structures 198 6.6.4 Load Controller 200 6.6.5 Battery Bank 200 6.6.6 Array Orientation 200 6.7 Applications of Photovoltaic Solar Energy 201 6.7.1 Residential and Public Illumination 201 6.7.2 Stroboscopic Signaling 202 6.7.3 Electric Fence 203 6.7.4 Telecommunications 203 6.7.5 Water Supply and Micro ]irrigation Systems 203 6.7.6 Control of Plagues and Conservation of Food and Medicine 205 6.7.7 Hydrogen and Oxygen Generation by Electrolysis 206 6.7.8 Electric Power Supply 208 6.7.9 Security Video Cameras and Alarm Systems 209 6.8 Economics and Analysis of Solar Energy 209 References 214 7 Power Plants with Fuel Cells 217 7.1 Introduction 217 7.2 The Fuel Cell 218 7.3 Commercial Technologies for the Generation of Electricity 220 7.4 Practical Issues Related to Fuel Cell Stacking 231 7.4.1 Low ] and High ]Temperature Fuel Cells 231 7.4.2 Commercial and Manufacturing Issues 232 7.5 Constructional Features of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells 233 7.6 Constructional Features of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 236 7.7 Reformers, Electrolyzer Systems, and Related Precautions 237 7.8 Advantages and Disadvantages of Fuel Cells 238 7.9 Fuel Cell Equivalent Circuit 239 7.10 Water, Air, and Heat Management 246 7.10.1 Fuel Cells and Their Thermal Energy Evaluation 247 7.11 Experimental Evaluation of the Fuel Cell Equivalent Model Parameters 250 7.11.1 Determination of FC Parameters 253 7.12 Aspects of Hydrogen as Fuel 256 7.13 Load Curve Peak Shaving with Fuel Cells 258 7.13.1 Maximal Load Curve Flatness at Constant Output Power 258 7.14 Future Trends 260 References 263 8 Biomass ]Powered Microplants 267 8.1 Introduction 267 8.2 Fuel from Biomass 272 8.3 Biogas 274 8.4 Biomass for Biogas 275 8.5 Biological Formation of Biogas 277 8.6 Factors Affecting Biodigestion 277 8.7 Characteristics of Biodigesters 279 8.8 Construction of a Biodigester 281 8.8.1 Typical Size for a Biodigester 282 8.9 Generation of Electricity Using Biogas 282 References 286 9 Microturbines 289 9.1 Introduction 289 9.2 Principles of Operation 291 9.3 Microturbine Fuel 293 9.4 Control of Microturbine 294 9.4.1 Mechanical ]Side Structure 295 9.4.2 Electrical ]Side Structure 297 9.4.3 Control ]Side Structure 298 9.5 Efficiency and Power of Microturbines 303 9.6 Site Assessment for Installation of Microturbines 305 References 307 10 Earth Core and Solar Heated Geothermal Energy Plants 311 10.1 Introduction 311 10.2 Earth Core Geothermal as a Source of Energy 313 10.2.1 Earth Core Geothermal Economics 314 10.2.2 Examples of Earth Core Geothermal Electricity 316 10.3 Solar Heat Stored Underground as a Source of Energy 317 10.3.1 Heat Exchange with Nature 319 10.3.2 Heat Exchange with Surface Water 322 10.3.3 Heat Exchange with Circulating Fluid 322 10.4 Solar Geothermal Heat Exchangers 323 10.4.1 Horizontal Serpentines 324 10.4.2 Vertical Serpentines 326 10.4.3 Mixed Serpentines 326 10.4.4 Pressurized Serpentines Heat Pump 326 10.5 Heat Exchange with a Room 328 References 329 11 Thermocouple, Sea Waves, Tide, MHD, and Piezoelectric Power Plants 331 11.1 Introduction 331 11.2 Thermocouple Electric Power Generation 331 11.2.1 Thermocouples 332 11.2.2 Power Conversion Using Thermocouples 334 11.2.3 Principle of Semiconductor Thermocouples 336 11.2.4 A Stack of Semiconductor Thermocouples 338 11.2.5 A Plate of Semiconductor Thermocouples 338 11.2.6 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Semiconductor Thermocouples 339 11.3 Power Plants with Ocean Waves 339 11.3.1 Sea Wave Energy Extraction Technology 341 11.3.2 Energy Content in Sea Waves 344 11.4 Tide ] Based Small Power Plants 345 11.5 Small Central Magnetohydrodynamic 347 11.6 Small Piezoelectric Power Plant 349 11.6.1 Piezoelectric Energy Conversion 350 11.6.2 Piezoelectric ]Based Energy Applications 352 References 352 12 Induction Generators 357 12.1 Introduction 357 12.2 Principles of Operation 358 12.3 Representation of Steady ]State Operation 360 12.4 Power and Losses Generated 362 12.5 Self ] Excited Induction Generator 364 12.6 Magnetizing Curves and Self ]Excitation 368 12.7 Mathematical Description of the Self ]Excitation Process 369 12.8 Grid ] Connected and Stand ]Alone Operations 372 12.9 Speed and Voltage Control 374 12.9.1 Frequency, Speed, and Voltage Controls 376 12.9.2 The Danish Concept: Two Generators on the Same Shaft 383 12.9.3 Variable ]Speed Grid Connection 384 12.9.4 Control by the Load versus Control by the Source 385 12.10 Economics Considerations 387 References 389 13 Permanent Magnet Generators 393 13.1 Introduction 393 13.1.1 PMSG Radial Flux Machines 394 13.1.2 Axial Flux Machines 394 13.1.3 Operating Principle of the PMSG 395 13.2 Permanent Magnets Used for PMSGs 397 13.3 Modeling a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine 398 13.3.1 Simplified Model of a PMSG 402 13.4 Core Types of a PMSG 407 13.5 PSIM Simulation of the PMSG 408 13.6 Advantages and Disadvantages of the PMSG 408 References 411 14 Storage Systems 413 14.1 Introduction 413 14.2 Energy Storage Parameters 416 14.3 Lead-Acid Batteries 419 14.3.1 Constructional Features 421 14.3.2 Battery Charge-Discharge Cycles 422 14.3.3 Operating Limits and Parameters 424 14.3.4 Maintenance of Lead-Acid Batteries 426 14.3.5 Sizing Lead-Acid Batteries for DG Applications 427 14.4 Ultracapacitors (Supercapacitors) 429 14.4.1 Double ]Layer Effect 430 14.4.2 High ]Energy Ultracapacitors 432 14.4.3 Applications of Ultracapacitors 433 14.5 Flywheels 435 14.5.1 Advanced Performance of Flywheels 436 14.5.2 Applications of Flywheels 437 14.5.3 Design Strategies 439 14.6 Superconducting Magnetic Storage System 441 14.6.1 SMES System Capabilities 443 14.6.2 Developments in SMES Systems 444 14.7 Pumped Hydroelectric Storage 446 14.7.1 Storage Capabilities of Pumped Systems 447 14.8 Compressed Air Energy Storage 449 14.9 Heat Storage 451 14.10 Hydrogen Storage 452 14.11 Energy Storage as an Economic Resource 453 References 457 15 Integration of Alternative Sources of Energy 461 15.1 Introduction 461 15.2 Principles of Power Interconnection 462 15.2.1 Converting Technologies 462 15.2.2 Power Converters for Power Injection into the Grid 464 15.2.3 Power Flow 466 15.3 Instantaneous Active and Reactive Power Control Approach 470 15.4 Integration of Multiple Renewable Energy Sources 473 15.4.1 DC ]Link Integration 475 15.4.2 AC ]Link Integration 477 15.4.3 HFAC ]Link Integration 478 15.5 Islanding and Interconnection Control 481 15.6 DG PLL with Clarke and Park Transformations 490 15.6.1 Clarke Transformation for AC ]Link Integration 490 15.6.2 Blondel or Park Transformation for AC ]Link Integration 492 15.7 DG Control and Power Injection 494 References 500 16 Distributed Generation 503 16.1 Introduction 503 16.2 The Purpose of Distributed Generation 506 16.2.1 Modularity 507 16.2.2 Efficiency 507 16.2.3 Low or No Emissions 507 16.2.4 Security 507 16.2.5 Load Management 508 16.3 Sizing and Siting of Distributed Generation 510 16.4 Demand ]Side Management 511 16.5 Optimal Location of Distributed Energy Sources 512 16.5.1 DG Influence on Power and Energy Losses 514 16.5.2 Estimation of DG Influence on Power Losses of Sub ]transmission Systems 518 16.5.3 Equivalent of Sub ]transmission Systems Using Experimental Design 521 16.6 Algorithm of Multicriterial Analysis 523 16.6.1 Voltage Quality in DG Systems 525 References 530 17 Interconnection of Alternative Energy Sources with the Grid 533 Benjamin Kroposki, Thomas Basso, Richard Deblasio, and N. Richard Friedman 17.1 Introduction 533 17.2 Interconnection Technologies 536 17.2.1 Synchronous Interconnection 536 17.2.2 Induction Interconnection 537 17.2.3 Inverter Interconnection 538 17.3 Standards and Codes for Interconnection 539 17.3.1 IEEE 1547 539 17.3.2 National Electrical Code 540 17.3.2.1 NFPA 70: National Electrical Code 540 17.3.2.2 NFPA 853: Standard for the Installation of Stationary Fuel Cell Power Plants 541 17.3.3 UL Standards 541 17.3.3.1 UL 1741: Inverters, Converters, and Controllers for Use in Independent Power Systems 541 17.3.3.2 UL 1008: Transfer Switch Equipment 541 17.3.3.3 UL 2200: Standard for Safety for Stationary Engine Generator Assemblies 543 17.4 Interconnection Considerations 543 17.4.1 Voltage Regulation 543 17.4.2 Integration with Area EPS Grounding 544 17.4.3 Synchronization 544 17.4.4 Isolation 545 17.4.5 Response to Voltage Disturbance 545 17.4.6 Response to Frequency Disturbance 546 17.4.7 Disconnection for Faults 548 17.4.8 Loss of Synchronism 549 17.4.9 Feeder Reclosing Coordination 549 17.4.10 Dc Injection 550 17.4.11 Voltage Flicker 550 17.4.12 Harmonics 551 17.4.13 Unintentional Islanding Protection 553 17.5 Interconnection Examples for Alternative Energy Sources 553 17.5.1 Synchronous Generator for Peak Demand Reduction 555 17.5.2 Small Grid ]Connected PV System 555 References 557 18 Micropower System Modeling with HOMER 559 Tom Lambert, Paul Gilman, and Peter Lilienthal 18.1 Introduction 559 18.2 Simulation 561 18.3 Optimization 566 18.4 Sensitivity Analysis 569 18.4.1 Dealing with Uncertainty 570 18.4.2 Sensitivity Analyses on Hourly Data Sets 573 18.5 Physical Modeling 574 18.5.1 Loads 574 18.5.1.1 Primary Load 575 18.5.1.2 Deferrable Load 575 18.5.1.3 Thermal Load 576 18.5.2 Resources 577 18.5.2.1 Solar Resource 577 18.5.2.2 Wind Resource 577 18.5.2.3 Hydro Resource 578 18.5.2.4 Biomass Resource 578 18.5.3 Components 579 18.5.3.1 PV Array 580 18.5.3.2 Wind Turbine 581 18.5.3.3 Hydro Turbine 582 18.5.3.4 Generators 583 18.5.3.5 Battery Bank 585 18.5.3.6 Grid 589 18.5.3.7 Boiler 591 18.5.3.8 Converter 591 18.5.3.9 Electrolyzer 592 18.5.3.10 Hydrogen Tank 592 18.5.4 System Dispatch 592 18.5.4.1 Operating Reserve 593 18.5.4.2 Control of Dispatchable System Components 594 18.5.4.3 Dispatch Strategy 597 18.5.4.4 Load Priority 598 18.6 Economic Modeling 598 References 601 Appendix A Diesel Power Plants 603 A.1 Introduction 603 A.2 The Diesel Engine 604 A.3 Main Components of a Diesel Engine 604 A.3.1 Fixed Parts 605 A.3.2 Moving Parts 605 A.3.3 Auxiliary Systems 605 A.4 Terminology of Diesel Engines 606 A.4.1 The Diesel Cycle 606 A.4.2 Combustion Process 608 A.4.2.1 Four ]Stroke Diesel Engine 609 A.5 Cycle of the Diesel Engine 609 A.5.1 Relative Diesel Engine Cycle Losses 610 A.5.2 Classification of the Diesel Engine 610 A.6 Types of Fuel Injection Pumps 611 A.7 Electrical Conditions of Generators Driven by Diesel Engines 612 References 614 Appendix B The Stirling Engine 615 B.1 Introduction 615 B.2 The Stirling Cycle 616 B.3 Displacer ]Type Stirling Engine 619 B.4 Two ]Piston Stirling Engine 621 References 623 Index 625

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9781119137368
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 688
  • ID: 9781119137368
  • weight: 1074
  • ISBN10: 1119137365
  • edition: 2nd Edition

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