Integrated in principle, segregated in fact: is this the legacy of 50 years of "progress" in American racial policy? Is there hope for much better? Roy L. Brooks, a professor of law and a writer on matters of race and civil rights, says what few will admit - integration hasn't worked and possibly never will. Equally, he casts doubt on the solution that many African-Americans and mainstream whites have advocated: total separation of the races. This book presents Brooks's strategy for a middle way between the increasingly unworkable extremes of integration and separation. Limited separation, the approach Brooks proposes, shifts the focus of civil rights policy from the group to the individual. Defined as cultural and economic integration within African-American society, this policy would promote separate schooling, housing and business enterprises where needed to bolster the self-sufficiency of the community, without trammeling the racial interests of individuals inside or outside of the group, and without endangering the idea of a shared Americanness.
But all the while Brooks envisions African-American public schools, businesses and communities redesigned to serve the enlightened self-interest of the individual. Unwilling to give up entirely on racial integration, he argues that limited separation may indeed lead to improved race relations and, ultimately, to healthy integration. This book appears as Republicans dismantle past civil rights policies and Democrats search for new ones. With its alternative strategy and useful policy ideas for bringing individual African-Americans into mainstream society as first-class citizens, "Integration or Separation?" should influence debate and policymaking across the spectra of race, class and political persuasion.
Roy L. Brooks is Warren Distinguished Professor of Law at the University of San Diego Law School.
Preface Racial Integration Elementary and Secondary Education Higher Education Housing Employment Voting Why Integration Has Failed Total Separation Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. Du Bois Marcus Garvey The Nation of Islam Emigration to Liberia Black Towns in the United States Intra-Racial Conflicts and Racial Romanticism Limited Separation The Case for a Policy of Limited Separation Elementary and Secondary Education Higher Education Cultural Integration within the Community Economic Integration within the Community Political Power Epilogue Notes Index