Integrative Organismal Biology

Integrative Organismal Biology

By: Lynn B. Martin (author), Cameron K. Ghalambor (author), H. Arthur Woods (author)Paperback

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Integrative Organismal Biology synthesizes current understandings of the causes and consequences of individual variation at the physiological, behavioral and organismal levels. Emphasizing key topics such as phenotypic plasticity and flexibility, and summarizing emerging areas such as ecological immunology, oxidative stress biology and others, Integrative Organismal Biology pulls together information from diverse disciplines to provide a synthetic view of the role of the individual in evolution. Beginning with the role of the individual in evolutionary and ecological processes, the book covers theory and mechanism from both classic and modern perspectives. Chapters explore concepts such as phenotypic plasticity, genetic and epigenetic variation, physiological and phenotypic variation, homeostasis, and gene and physiological regulatory networks. A concluding section interweaves these concepts through a series of case studies of life processes such as aging, reproduction, and immune defense. Written and edited by leaders in the field, Integrative Organismal Biology will be an important advanced textbook for students and researchers across a variety of subdisciplines of integrative biology.

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Acknowledgments xiii Notes on Contributors xv 1 PLASTICITY, COMPLEXITY, AND THE INDIVIDUAL 1 Cameron K. Ghalambor, Lynn B. Martin, and H. Arthur Woods Introduction 1 Bridging the Conceptual Divide 3 Integrative Organismal Biology: Progress to Date 4 Phenotypic Plasticity: The Link between Individuals, Environments, and Evolution 6 The Problem of Complexity 9 Embracing the Individual and the Union of Functional and Evolutionary Biology 11 Conclusion 14 References 15 2 THE ECOLOGICAL AND EVOLUTIONARY IMPORTANCE OF VARIATION IN LIFE HISTORY REACTION NORMS 23 Daniel H. Nussey Introduction 23 The Reaction Norm Approach and Individual by Environment Interactions (I x E) 25 Why Do Reaction Norms Vary? 27 Causes and Consequences of Variation in Avian Phenological Plasticity 29 Integrating Field and Laboratory Studies of Life History Plasticity 32 The Challenges Ahead 34 References 35 3 CURVE-THINKING: UNDERSTANDING REACTION NORMS AND DEVELOPMENTAL TRAJECTORIES AS TRAITS 39 Joel Kingsolver, Sarah Diamond, and Richard Gomulkiewicz Introduction 39 Characterizing Curves 41 Variation among Curves 42 Simplicity and Biological Hypotheses 48 Summary and Future Directions 51 Acknowledgments 52 References 52 4 PLASTICITY AND PERSONALITY 55 Kimberley J. Mathot and Niels J. Dingemanse Animal Personality: Moving beyond Optimality and Embracing Individual Differences 55 Individual Differences in Behavioral Plasticity 58 Personality-Related Differences in Plasticity 60 Adaptive Explanations for Personality-Related Differences in Plasticity 61 Ecological and Evolutionary Implications of Personality and Plasticity 63 Genetic and Environmental Underpinnings 64 Designs to Study Personality-Related Differences in Plasticity 65 Conclusions and Future Directions 66 References 66 5 INDUCTION AND FUNCTION OF POLYPHENIC MORPHS: PROXIMATE REGULATORY MECHANISMS AND EVOLUTIONARY IMPLICATIONS 71 Anthony J. Zera and Jennifer A. Brisson Introduction 71 Background on Endocrinology and Gene Regulation 74 Case Studies 77 Summary and Future Directions 83 Acknowledgments 85 References 85 6 EVOLUTIONARY SYSTEMS BIOLOGY: SHIFTING FOCUS TO THE CONTEXT-DEPENDENCY OF GENETIC EFFECTS 91 Mihaela Pavli!cev and Gunter P. Wagner Introduction 91 Two Ends of the Spectrum in Evolutionary Biology 92 Context-Dependency in Population Genetics: Epistasis 94 Genetic Effects Structured by Development: Pleiotropy 95 What Are the Consequences of Context-Dependency? 95 Generalizing SPC Model: Interaction of Gene Effects, or Effects of Interactions? 100 Conclusion 103 References 104 7 THE ROLE OF ECOLOGICAL EPIGENETICS IN INTEGRATIVE BIOLOGY 109 Aaron W. Schrey, Joshua Banta, Holly J. Kilvitis, and Christina L. Richards Introduction 109 Ecological Epigenetics 112 Case Study: Arabidopsis Thaliana 114 Conclusion 115 References 115 8 AN ELEPHANT IN THE FOG: UNIFYING CONCEPTS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL STASIS AND CHANGE 119 H. Arthur Woods and J. Keaton Wilson Introduction 119 Elaborations of Stasis and Change 120 Axes of (Dis)similarity 124 Constructing a Conceptual Elephant 126 Unification Diffuses Concepts and Tools 127 Costs and Constraints 130 Conclusion 131 Acknowledgments 132 References 132 9 PHYSIOLOGICAL REGULATORY NETWORKS: THE ORCHESTRA OF LIFE? 137 Lynn B. Martin and Alan A. Cohen Introduction 137 What is a Physiological Regulatory Network (PRN)? 138 Known and Expected Characteristics of PRNs 140 Organismal Implications of PRNs: Stability and Resiliency 142 Ecological and Evolutionary Implications of PRNs: Constraints and Evolvability 146 Open Issues 147 Conclusion 148 Glossary 148 References 149 10 INTEGRATING COSTS OF REPRODUCTION BETWEEN THE SEXES 153 Robert M. Cox Introduction 153 Integrating Costs of Reproduction through Common Currencies 154 Intralocus Sexual Conflict and Life-History Evolution 156 Immunocompetence Handicaps and Sex-Specific Costs 158 Integrating Sex-Specific Processes through Shared Regulatory Axes 159 Summary 163 Acknowledgments 164 References 164 11 IMMUNE SYSTEMS: LINKING ORGANISMS, POPULATIONS, AND EVOLUTION THROUGH DISEASE 169 James S. Adelman Introduction 169 Immune Systems: A Brief Overview 170 Proposed Divers of Immune Heterogeneity 172 Consequences of Immune Heterogeneity: Theoretical Studies 173 Consequences of Immune Heterogeneity: Empirical Studies 178 Bridging the Divide between Theory and Experiment 180 Acknowledgments 181 References 181 12 DEVELOPMENTAL PLASTICITY OF INDIVIDUAL VARIATION IN STRESS RESPONSES 187 Haruka Wada Introduction 187 When is a Change in Environment a Stressor? 188 Organismal Responses to Stressors 189 Integrating Developmental Plasticity 191 Future Directions 196 Conclusion 200 References 200 13 A COMMON FRAMEWORK FOR THE REGULATION OF GROWTH AND SIZE: STEPPING AWAY FROM THE TREES TO SEE THE FOREST 207 Goggy Davidowitz and Bryan R. Helm Introduction 207 A General Framework for the Regulation of Growth and Body Size 208 Commonalities in the Regulation of Body Size Across Taxa 209 Using the Framework to Address the Ecology and Evolution of Growth and Size 213 Acknowledgments 214 References 214 14 ADDING FUEL TO THE FIRE OF LIFE : ENERGY BUDGETS ACROSS LEVELS OF VARIATION IN ECTOTHERMS AND ENDOTHERMS 219 Vincent Careau, Shaun S. Killen, and Neil B. Metcalfe Introduction 219 Intrinsic Factors that Explain Variation in MR 221 Extrinsic Factors that Explain Variation in MR 222 Energy Budgets 223 Metabolic Scopes: A Different Kind of Energetic Budgeting 226 Energetic Constraints on Individual Behavior 227 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 229 References 229 15 BIOLOGICAL TIMEKEEPING: INDIVIDUAL VARIATION, PERFORMANCE, AND FITNESS 235 Scott A. MacDougall-Shackleton, Heather E. Watts, and Thomas P. Hahn Introduction 235 Endogenous versus Environmental Drivers 235 Responses to Entrainment by Endogenous Clocks Varies over Their Cycle 236 General Properties of Biological Rhythms 238 Circadian Rhythms 238 Circannual Cycles and Seasonality 244 Conclusion 250 Acknowledgments 250 References 250 16 SENESCENCE: INTEGRATING BIOLOGY FROM CRADLE TO THE GRAVE 257 Mark F. Haussmann and Lisa A. Treidel Introduction 257 Ultimate Theories of Aging 258 Proximate Theories of Aging 259 Future Directions 265 References 269 17 LINKING PHYSIOLOGY, CLIMATE, AND SPECIES DISTRIBUTIONAL RANGES 277 Francisco Bozinovic and Daniel E. Naya Introduction 277 Limits to Geographic Ranges: Examples Involving Capacities and Tolerances 278 Limits to Geographic Ranges: Examples Involving Tolerances and Plasticity 281 Proximate Causes behind Macrophysiological Patterns 283 Conclusions and Future Directions 286 Acknowledgments 287 References 287 18 TRADE-OFFS AND BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY: INTEGRATIVE ANSWERS TO ECOLOGICAL QUESTIONS 291 Paul R. Martin Introduction 291 Evolutionary Trade-Offs and the Distributions of Species 298 Are Trade-Offs Universal? 299 Trade-Offs, Integrative Biology, and Moving Forward 300 Acknowledgments 303 References 303 19 CONCLUSIONS: THE CENTRAL ROLE OF THE ORGANISM IN BIOLOGY 309 H. Arthur Woods, Lynn B. Martin, and Cameron K. Ghalambor Introduction 309 How Do Complex Traits Interact with Complex Environments? 311 Where Does Organismal Diversity Come From and How Does It Evolve? 312 How Useful is Reductionism? 313 What are the Consequences of Emergence for Organismal Biology? 314 Conclusions to the Conclusions 315 Acknowledgments 315 References 315 Index 319

Product Details

  • publication date: 30/01/2015
  • ISBN13: 9781118398784
  • Format: Paperback
  • Number Of Pages: 344
  • ID: 9781118398784
  • weight: 616
  • ISBN10: 1118398785

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