Intelligent Transport Systems: Technologies and Applications

Intelligent Transport Systems: Technologies and Applications

By: Ignacio Julio Garcia-Zuazola (editor), Asier Perallos (editor), Unai Hernandez-Jayo (editor), Enrique Onieva (editor)Hardback

Only 1 in stock

£80.06 RRP £88.95  You save £8.89 (10%) With FREE Saver Delivery

Description

The book provides a systematic overview of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). First, it includes an insight into the reference architectures developed within the main EU research projects. Then, it delves into each of the layers of such architectures, from physical to application layer, describing the technological issues which are being currently faced by some of the most important ITS research groups. The book concludes with some end user services and applications deployed by industrial partners.

This book is a well-balanced combination of academic contributions and industrial applications in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems. The most representative technologies and research results achieved by some of the most relevant research groups working on ITS, collated to show the chances of generating industrial solutions to be deployed in real transportation environments.

Create a review

Contents

About the Editors xv List of Contributors xvii Foreword xxiii Acknowledgements xxxii Part 1 Intelligent Transportation Systems 1 1 Reference ITS Architectures in Europe 3 Begona Molinete, Sergio Campos, Ignacio (Inaki) Olabarrieta and Ana Isabel Torre 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 FRAME: The European ITS Framework Architecture 3 1.2.1 Background 4 1.2.2 Scope 5 1.2.3 Methodology and Content 6 1.3 Cooperative Systems and Their Impact on the European ITS Architecture Definition 7 1.3.1 Research Projects and Initiatives 7 1.3.2 Pilots and Field Operational Tests 8 1.3.3 European Policy and Standardization Framework 9 1.3.4 Impact on FRAME Architecture 9 1.4 Experiences in ITS Architecture Design 10 1.4.1 Cybercars 2: Architecture Design for a Cooperative Cybernetics Transport System 10 1.4.2 MoveUs Cloud Based Platform Architecture 13 References 17 2 Architecture Reference of ITS in the USA 18 Clifford D. Heise 2.1 Introduction 18 2.2 National ITS Architecture in the USA 19 2.3 Origins of ITS Architecture in the USA 19 2.4 US National ITS Architecture Definition 20 2.4.1 The Development Process 20 2.4.2 User Services 22 2.4.3 Logical Architecture 22 2.4.4 Physical Architecture 23 2.4.5 Services 25 2.4.6 Standards Mapping 25 2.5 Impact on ITS Development in USA 26 2.5.1 Architecture and Standards Regulation 27 2.5.2 ITS Planning 28 2.5.3 ITS Project Development 29 2.5.4 Tools 32 2.6 Evolution of the National ITS Architecture 34 References 35 Part 2 Wireless Vehicular Communications 37 3 Wireless Communications in Vehicular Environments 39 Pekka Eloranta and Timo Sukuvaara 3.1 Background and History of Vehicular Networking 39 3.2 Vehicular Networking Approaches 46 3.3 Vehicular Ad hoc Networking 48 3.3.1 Vehicle to infrastructure Communication 50 3.3.2 Vehicle to vehicle Communication 51 3.3.3 Combined Vehicle to vehicle and Vehicle to infrastructure Communication 52 3.3.4 Hybrid Vehicular Network 53 3.3.5 LTE and Liquid Applications 54 References 55 4 The Case for Wireless Vehicular Communications Supported by Roadside Infrastructure 57 Tiago Meireles, Jose Fonseca and Joaquim Ferreira 4.1 Introduction 57 4.1.1 Rationale for Infrastructure based Vehicle Communications for Safety Applications 59 4.2 MAC Solutions for Safety Applications in Vehicular Communications 61 4.2.1 Infrastructure based Collision free MAC Protocols 63 4.2.2 RT WiFi TDMA Layer 65 4.2.3 Vehicular Deterministic Access (VDA) 65 4.2.4 Self organizing TDMA (STDMA) 66 4.2.5 MS Aloha 66 4.3 Vehicular Flexible Time triggered Protocol 68 4.3.1 Model for RSU Deployment in Motorways 68 4.3.2 RSU Infrastructure Window (IW) 69 4.3.3 V FTT Protocol Overview 71 4.3.4 Synchronous OBU Window (SOW) 74 4.4 V FTT Protocol Details 75 4.4.1 Trigger Message Size 75 4.4.2 Synchronous OBU Window Length (lsow) 77 4.4.3 V FTT Protocol Using IEEE 802.11p/WAVE / ITS G 5 78 4.5 Conclusions 80 References 81 5 Cyber Security Risk Analysis for Intelligent Transport Systems and In vehicle Networks 83 Alastair R. Ruddle and David D. Ward 5.1 Introduction 83 5.2 Automotive Cyber Security Vulnerabilities 84 5.2.1 Information Security 85 5.2.2 Electromagnetic Vulnerabilities 85 5.3 Standards and Guidelines 86 5.3.1 Risk Analysis Concepts 86 5.3.2 Functional Safety Standards 87 5.3.3 IT Security Standards 87 5.3.4 Combining Safety and Security Analysis 88 5.4 Threat Identification 88 5.4.1 Use Cases 88 5.4.2 Security Actors 89 5.4.3 Dark side Scenarios and Attack Trees 90 5.4.4 Identifying Security Requirements 93 5.5 Unified Analysis of Security and Safety Risks 93 5.5.1 Severity Classification 93 5.5.2 Probability Classification 95 5.5.3 Controllability Classification 95 5.5.4 Risk Classification 95 5.5.5 Evaluating Risk from Attack Trees 97 5.5.6 Prioritizing Security Functional Requirements 100 5.5.7 Security Assurance and Safety Integrity Requirements 101 5.6 Cyber Security Risk Management 102 5.7 Conclusions 103 Acknowledgements 104 References 104 6 Vehicle Interaction with Electromagnetic Fields and Implications for Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) Development 107 Lester Low and Alastair R. Ruddle 6.1 Introduction 107 6.2 In vehicle EM Field Investigation and Channel Characterization 109 6.3 Field Simulation Tools and Techniques 112 6.4 In vehicle EM Field Measurement 116 6.5 Simulation of Field Distribution and Antenna Placement Optimization 118 6.6 Occupant Field Exposure and Possible Field Mitigation Methods 122 6.6.1 Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields 122 6.6.2 Field Mitigation Methods 125 6.7 Conclusions 127 Acknowledgements 128 References 128 7 Novel In car Integrated and Roof mounted Antennas 131 Rus Leelaratne 7.1 Introduction 131 7.2 Antennas for Broadcast Radio 132 7.2.1 Roof mounted Radio Antennas 132 7.2.2 Hidden Glass Antennas 134 7.2.3 Hidden and Integrated Antennas 136 7.3 Antennas for Telematics 137 7.3.1 Roof mounted Telematics Antennas 137 7.3.2 Hidden Telematics Antennas 140 7.3.3 Future Trend of Telematics Antennas 141 7.4 Antennas for Intelligent Transportation Systems 141 7.4.1 Car2Car Communication Antennas 141 7.4.2 Emergency Call (E Call) Antennas 143 7.4.3 Other ITS Antennas 144 7.5 Intelligent and Smart Antennas 145 7.5.1 Intelligent Antenna for Broadcast Radio 145 7.5.2 Intelligent Antenna for GNSS 146 7.6 Conclusions 147 References 147 Part 3 Sensors Networks and Surveillance at ITS 149 8 Middleware Solution to Support ITS Services in IoT based Visual Sensor Networks 151 Matteo Petracca, Claudio Salvadori, Andrea Azzara, Daniele Alessandrelli, Stefano Bocchino, Luca Maggiani and Paolo Pagano 8.1 Introduction 151 8.2 Visual Sensor Networks and IoT Protocols 153 8.2.1 Visual Sensor Networks 153 8.2.2 Internet of Things 156 8.3 Proposed Middleware Architecture for IoT based VSNs 158 8.3.1 RESTful Web Service 159 8.3.2 Configuration Manager 160 8.3.3 Resource Processing Engine 160 8.4 Middleware Instantiation for the Parking Lot Monitoring Use Case 161 8.4.1 Use Case Scenario, Exposed Resources and Their Interaction 161 8.4.2 Middleware Implementation 163 8.5 Conclusions 164 References 165 9 Smart Cameras for ITS in Urban Environment 167 Massimo Magrini, Davide Moroni, Gabriele Pieri and Ovidio Salvetti 9.1 Introduction 167 9.2 Applications to Urban Scenarios 169 9.3 Embedded Vision Nodes 171 9.3.1 Features of Available Vision Nodes 172 9.3.2 Computer Vision on Embedded Nodes 173 9.4 Implementation of Computer Vision Logics on Embedded Systems for ITS 175 9.4.1 Traffic Status and Level of Service 175 9.4.2 Parking Monitoring 178 9.5 Sensor Node Prototype 180 9.5.1 The Vision Board 181 9.5.2 The Networking Board 182 9.5.3 The Sensor 182 9.5.4 Energy Harvesting and Housing 182 9.5.5 The Board Layout 183 9.6 Application Scenarios and Experimental Results 184 9.7 Conclusions 185 References 187 Part 4 Data Processing Techniques at ITS 189 10 Congestion Prediction by Means of Fuzzy Logic and Genetic Algorithms 191 Xiao Zhang, Enrique Onieva, Victor C.S. Lee and Kai Liu 10.1 Introduction 191 10.2 Hierarchical Fuzzy Rule based System (HFRBS) 193 10.3 Genetic Hierarchical Fuzzy Rule based System (GHFRBS) 194 10.3.1 Triple Coding Scheme 194 10.3.2 Genetic Operators 196 10.3.3 Chromosome Evaluation 197 10.3.4 Mechanism and Characteristics of the Algorithm Framework 197 10.4 Dataset Configuration and Simplification 197 10.5 Experimentation 199 10.5.1 Experimental Setup 199 10.5.2 Results 199 10.5.3 Analysis of the Results 201 10.6 Conclusions 202 Acknowledgment 203 References 203 11 Vehicle Control in ADAS Applications: State of the Art 206 Joshue Perez, David Gonzalez and Vicente Milanes 11.1 Introduction 206 11.2 Vehicle Control in ADAS Application 206 11.3 Control Levels 207 11.4 Some Previous Works 208 11.5 Key Factor for Vehicle Control in the Market 210 11.6 ADAS Application From a Control Perspective 211 11.6.1 Lane Change Assistant Systems 212 11.6.2 Pedestrian Safety Systems 212 11.6.3 Forward looking Systems 213 11.6.4 Adaptive Light Control 213 11.6.5 Park Assistant 214 11.6.6 Night Vision Systems 215 11.6.7 Cruise Control System 215 11.6.8 Traffic Sign and Traffic Light Recognition 215 11.6.9 Map Supported Systems 216 11.6.10 Vehicle Interior Observation 217 11.7 Conclusions 217 References 218 12 Review of Legal Aspects Relating to Advanced Driver Assistance Systems 220 Alastair R. Ruddle and Lester Low 12.1 Introduction 220 12.2 Vehicle Type Approval 221 12.3 Trends in Vehicle Automation 223 12.3.1 EU Policy 223 12.3.2 Brake Assist Systems 223 12.3.3 Advanced Vehicle Systems 225 12.3.4 Advanced Driving Assistance Systems 226 12.3.5 Categorization of Vehicle Automation Levels 227 12.4 Vienna Convention on Road Traffic 227 12.4.1 Implications for Driving Assistance Systems 230 12.4.2 Proposed Amendments 231 12.4.3 Implications for Autonomous Driving 233 12.5 Liability Issues 234 12.5.1 Identifying Responsibilities 234 12.5.2 Event Data Recorders 236 12.6 Best Practice for Complex Systems Development 237 12.6.1 Safety Case 238 12.6.2 Safety Development Processes 239 12.6.3 ECWVTA Requirements 240 12.6.4 Cyber Security Issues 241 12.7 Conclusions 242 Acknowledgements 243 References 243 Part 5 Applications and Services for Users and Traffic Managers 247 13 Traffic Management Systems 249 Antonio Amador, Rui Dias, Tiago Dias and Tome Canas 13.1 Introduction 249 13.1.1 Objectives 249 13.1.2 Traffic Management 250 13.1.3 Traffic Environments 251 13.2 Traffic Management Framework 253 13.2.1 Inputs 255 13.2.2 Analysis 260 13.2.3 Outputs 265 13.3 Key Stakeholders 266 13.4 Traffic Management Centres 266 13.4.1 Scope 267 13.4.2 Operation Platforms 268 13.5 Conclusions 270 References 271 14 The Use of Cooperative ITS in Urban Traffic Management 272 Sadko Mand uka, Edouard Ivanjko, Miroslav Vujic , Pero korput and Martin Greguric 14.1 Introduction 272 14.2 Cooperative Ramp Metering 274 14.2.1 Ramp Metering 275 14.2.2 Cooperation between Local Ramp Meters 277 14.2.3 Cooperation between Ramp Metering and Other Traffic Management Systems 278 14.3 Incident Management in Urban Areas 280 14.4 Public Transport Cooperative Priorities 284 14.5 Conclusions 287 Acknowledgment 287 References 288 15 Methodology for an Intelligent in Car Traffic Information Management System 289 Nerea Aguiriano, Alfonso Brazalez and Luis Matey 15.1 Introduction 289 15.2 Validation Framework 291 15.3 HMI Design Methodology 292 15.3.1 Signal Model 295 15.3.2 Interpretation Model 296 15.3.3 Representation Model 302 15.4 Case Study 305 15.4.1 Signal Model for Received Messages 305 15.4.2 Interpretation Model 306 15.4.3 Representation Model 310 15.5 Conclusions 311 References 311 16 New Approaches in User Services Development for Multimodal Trip Planning 313 Asier Moreno, Itziar Salaberria and Diego Lopez de Ipina 16.1 Introduction 313 16.1.1 Multimodal Transport 314 16.1.2 Travel User Services 315 16.2 Travel Planning Information Systems 316 16.2.1 Standard Travel Planning Services 316 16.2.2 Transit Information Formats and Standards 319 16.2.3 New Trends in Transit Information 320 16.3 Integrating Linked Open Data for Multimodal Transportation 321 16.3.1 Related Work 323 16.3.2 Management and Provision of Multimodal Transport Semantic Information 324 16.4 Conclusions 328 References 329 Index 331

Product Details

  • publication date: 04/12/2015
  • ISBN13: 9781118894781
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 368
  • ID: 9781118894781
  • weight: 732
  • ISBN10: 1118894782

Delivery Information

  • Saver Delivery: Yes
  • 1st Class Delivery: Yes
  • Courier Delivery: Yes
  • Store Delivery: Yes

Prices are for internet purchases only. Prices and availability in WHSmith Stores may vary significantly

Close