Interconnecting Data Centers Using VPLS (Ensure Business Continuance on Virtualized Networks by Implementing Layer 2 Connectivity Across Layer 3)
By: Nash Darukhanawalla (author), Patrice Bellagamba (author)Paperback
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As data centers grow in size and complexity, enterprises are adopting server virtualization technologies such as VMware, VMotion, NIC teaming, and server clustering to achieve increased efficiency of resources and to ensure business resilience. However, these technologies often involve significant expense and challenges to deal with complex multisite interconnections and to maintain the high availability of network resources and applications. Interconnecting Data Centers Using VPLS presents Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS) based solutions that provide high-speed, low-latency network and Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) isolation between data centers resulting in significant cost savings and a highly resilient virtualized network. The design guidance, configuration examples, and best practices presented in this book have been validated under the Cisco Validated Design (CVD) System Assurance program to facilitate faster, more reliable and more predictable deployments. The presented solutions include detailed information about issues that relate to large Layer 2 bridging domains and offer guidance for extending VLANs over Layer 3 networks using VPLS technology. Implementing this breakthrough Data Center Interconnect (DCI) strategy will evolve your network to support current server virtualization techniques and to provide a solid foundation for emerging approaches. The book takes you from the legacy deployment models for DCI, problems associated with extending Layer 2 networks, through VPN technologies, to various MST-, EEM-, and GRE-based deployment models and beyond. Although this book is intended to be read cover-to-cover, it is designed to be flexible and allow you to easily move between chapters to develop the solution most compatible with your requirements. Describes a variety of deployment models to effectively transport Layer 2 information, allowing your virtualization solution to operate effectively Explains benefits and trade-offs of various solutions for you to choose the solution most compatible with your network requirements to ensure business resilience Provides detailed design guidance and configuration examples that follow Cisco best practice recommendations tested within the CVDThis book is part of the Networking Technology Series from Cisco Press (R), which offers networking professionals valuable information for constructing efficient networks, understanding new technologies, and building successful careers.
Nash Darukhanawalla, CCIE No. 10332, has more than 25 years of internetworking experience. He has held a wide variety of consulting, technical, product development, customer support, and management positions. Nash's technical expertise includes extensive experience in designing and supporting complex networks with a strong background in configuring, troubleshooting, and analyzing network systems. Nash has been with Cisco for more than 10 years and is currently an engineering managerin the Enhanced Customer Aligned Testing Services (ECATS) group in the Advanced Services organization. Nash graduated with a bachelor of science degree in physics and computer science from the University of Bombay, India, and is a CCIE in routing and switching. He has written several white papers on various technologies and recently wrote the System Assurance Guide on High Availability Campus Network Design - Routed Access Using EIGRP or OSPF. Patrice Bellagamba has been in the networking industry for more than 25 years and has spent more than 10 years in engineering development. He is a consulting engineer and a recognized expert in IP and MPLS technologies. He is one of the influencers in the development of MPLS and has led MPLS techtorials at Networkers in Europe since itsinception. He is also the inventor of the Embedded Event Manager (EEM) semaphore concept and is the designer of the VPLS-based solutions that this book describes. Patrice holds an engineering degree from the E'cole Superieure d'Electricite, one of France's prestigious Grandes E'coles and a top institution in the field of electrical and computer engineering. He has written several Cisco white papers on the use of MPLS technology.
Introduction xv Chapter 1 Data Center Layer 2 Interconnect 1Overview of High-Availability Clusters 2Public Network Attachment 3Private Network Attachment 3Data Center Interconnect: Legacy Deployment Models 4Problems Associated with Extended Layer 2 Networks 5Summary 7Chapter 2 Appraising Virtual Private LAN Service 9VPN Technology Considerations 9Layer 3 Virtual Private Networks 10Layer 2 Virtual Private Networks 10VPLS Overview 11Understanding Pseudowires 14VPLS to Scale STP Domain for Layer 2 Interconnection 15H-VPLS Considerations 17EEM 18MPLS 19Label Switching Functions 19MPLS LDP 20MPLS LDP Targeted Session 20Limit LDP Label Allocation 21MPLS LDP-IGP Synchronization 21MPLS LDP TCP "Pak Priority" 21MPLS LDP Session Protection 22Summary 22Chapter 3 High Availability for Extended Layer 2 Networks 23MTU Evaluation for Intersite Transport 23Core Routing 25Mixed MPLS/IP Core 26Different IGP for IP Core and MPLS 27Same IGP for IP Core and MPLS 27Pure MPLS Core 28Pure IP Core 30Convergence Optimization 32Key Convergence Elements 33Failure Detection and Tuning 33IP Event Dampening 34BFD 35Link Debounce Timer 37Carrier-Delay Timer 38Alternate Route Computation 40Summary 42Chapter 4 MPLS Traffic Engineering 43Understanding MPLS-TE 43Fast Reroute 44Load Repartition over the Core 45Load Repartition over a Parallel-Links Bundle 45Implementing MPLS-TE for Traffic Repartition over Parallel Links 46Enable TE 47Create MPLS-TE Tunnels and Map Each VFI to a Tunnel LSP 48Explicit-Path Option 48Adding FRR to Explicit Option 50Affinity Option 52Adding FRR to Affinity Option 52Summary 53Chapter 5 Data Center Interconnect: Architecture Alternatives 55Ensuring a Loop-Free Global Topology: Two Primary Solution Models 55N-PE Using MST for Access to VPLS 56N-PE Using ICCP Emulation for Access to VPLS 56Data Center Interconnect Design Alternatives: Summary and Comparison 57Chapter 6 Case Studies for Data Center Interconnect 61Case Study 1: Large Government Organization 61Challenges 61Solution 62Case Study 2: Large Outsourcer for Server Migration and Clustering 65Challenges 65Solution 65Summary 68Chapter 7 Data Center Multilayer Infrastructure Design 69Network Staging for Design Validation 71Hardware and Software 72Convergence Tests 73Traffic Flow 73Traffic Rate 73Traffic Profile 74Summary 76Chapter 8 MST-Based Deployment Models 77MST in N-PE: MST Option 1a 77Implementing MST in N-PE: MST Option 1a Design 80Convergence Tests 100Cluster Server Tests 103VPLS with N-PE Redundancy Using RPVST with IsolatedMST in N-PE: MST Option 1b 106EEM Scripting to Complement Isolated MST Solution 109Implementing RPVST in a Data Center with Isolated MSTin N-PE (MST Option 1b) Design 110Convergence Tests 130Cluster Server Tests 134Summary 138Chapter 9 EEM-Based Deployment Models 139N-PE Redundancy Using the Semaphore Protocol: Overview 139Semaphore Definition 141Semaphore Theory Application 142N-PE Redundancy Using Semaphore Protocol: Details 142VPLS PWs in Normal Mode 142Primary N-PE Failure 145Primary N-PE Recovers After the Failure 145Implementing a Semaphore 146EEM / Semaphore Scripts 147Naming Conventions 148Loopback Definitions 148Node Definitions 149VPLS with N-PE Redundancy Using EEM Semaphore:EEM Option 2 150Control Plane 151Data Plane 151Theory of Operation 151Normal Mode 151Failure Conditions 152Primary N-PE Node Failure 153Primary N-PE Node Recovers After the Failure 154N-PE Routers: Hardware and Software 154Implementing VPLS with N-PE Redundancy UsingEEM Semaphore Design 154Convergence Tests 168Cluster Server Tests 172H-VPLS with N-PE Redundancy Using EEM Semaphore:EEM Option 3 176Control Plane 179Data Plane 179Theory of Operation 179Normal Mode 179Primary N-PE Node or Q-Link Failure 180Primary N-PE Node or Q-Link Recovers After the Failure 181N-PE Routers: Hardware and Software 182Implementing H-VPLS with N-PE Redundancy Using EEM SemaphoreDesign 182Convergence Tests 195Server Cluster Tests 199Multidomain H-VPLS with N-PE Redundancy: EEM Option 4a 201Control Plane 203Data Plane 203Theory of Operation 204Normal Mode 204Primary N-PE Node or Q-Link Failure 204Primary N-PE Node or Q-Link Recovery After the Failure 205N-PE Routers: Hardware and Software 207Implementing Multidomain H-VPLS with N-PE RedundancyUsing EEM Semaphore Design 207Convergence Tests 217Server Cluster Tests 221Multidomain H-VPLS with Dedicated U-PE: EEM Option 4b 227Multidomain H-VPLS with Multichassis EtherChannel: EEM Option 5a 227Solution Positioning 230Multidomain H-VPLS with MEC and VLAN Load Balancing:EEM Option 5b 230Control Plane 233Data Plane 233Theory of Operation 233Normal Mode 233Primary N-PE Node Failure 234Primary N-P Node Recovers After the Failure 235N-PE Routers: Hardware and Software 236Implementing EEM Option 5b 237Convergence Tests 252Server Tests 259Multidomain H-VPLS with MEC and VLAN Load Balancing:PWs on Active and Standby VPLS Nodes in Up/Up State:EEM Option 5c 262N-PE Routers: Hardware and Software 264Configuration Summary 265Convergence Tests 270Summary 275Chapter 10 GRE-Based Deployment Model 277Key Configuration Steps for VPLSoGRE-Based Solutions 279VPLSoGRE with N-PE Redundancy Using EEM Semaphore 282Convergence Tests 284Cluster Server Tests 286VPLSoGRE: Multidomain with H-VPLS Solution 291Convergence and Cluster Server Tests 296Cluster Server Tests 298Summary 302Chapter 11 Additional Data Center Interconnect Design Considerations 303Multicast Deployment in a Layer 2 Environment 303Multicast at Layer 2 304Tuning the IGMP Query Interval 304Spanning Tree, HSRP, and Service Module Design 306Routing Design 306QinQ MAC Overlapping 307Storm Control 310L2 Control-Plane Packet Storm Toward N-PE 311L2 Broadcast and Multicast Packet Storm 312L2 Known Unicast Packet Storm 313L2 Unknown Unicast Packet Storm 314QoS Considerations 315Stateful Switchover Considerations 318IGP (OSPF) Cost 318Router ID Selection 319Summary 319Chapter 12 VPLS PE Redundancy Using Inter-ChassisCommunication Protocol 321Introducing ICCP 322Interaction with AC Redundancy Mechanisms 324Interaction with PW Redundancy Mechanisms 325Configuring VPLS PE Redundancy Using ICCP 326Summary 327Chapter 13 Evolution of Data Center Interconnect 329A Larger Problem to Solve 329Networking Technology: Research Directions 330Improving Legacy L2 Bridging 330New Concepts in L2 Bridging 331L2 Service over L3 Transport: MPLS or IP? Battle or Coexistence? 332Summary 333Glossary 335Index 339
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