Intermediate Welsh: A Grammar and Workbook is designed for learners who have achieved basic proficiency and wish to proceed to more complex language. It presents a broad range of grammatical topics, illustrated by examples, which serve as models for the varied exercises that follow. The emphasis throughout is on colloquial spoken Welsh used by modern-day native speakers. Features include:
a clear, accessible format;
many useful language examples;
jargon-free grammar explanations;
sample drills and exercises;
a full key to the exercises.
This new edition has been redesigned for greater clarity and further examples have been updated.
Gareth King was UCAS Co-ordinator, Oxbridge Applications Co-ordinator and Latin Co-ordinator for a large sixth-form college. He is also the series editor for the Colloquials, and the author of numerous books for learners of Welsh, including Modern Welsh: A Comprehensive Grammar, The Routledge Intermediate Welsh Reader and Basic Welsh, the companion volume to this one.
Introduction 1 Inflected future: regulars 2 Inflected future: irregulars 3 Galla i Degrees/medra i Degrees `I can', etc. 4 Byth and erioed `never/ever' 5 Comparison of adjectives I: comparison 6 Comparison of adjectives II: superlative; equative 7 Comparison of adjectives III: irregulars 8 `Time'; ordinal numerals 9 Aspect distinctions with VNs: newydd Degrees, ar Degrees and heb Degrees with VNs 10 Alternative preterite formations 11 Subordinate clauses I 12 Subordinate clauses II 13 Subordinate clauses III 14 Relative clauses I 15 Relative clauses II 16 Conditional of bod; conditional of other verbs 17 Conditional sentences I: open conditions 18 Conditional sentences II: closed conditions 19 Other unreality verbs: gallwn i Degrees/medrwn i Degrees, dylwn i Degrees, leiciwn i Degrees/hoffwn i Degrees 20 Unreality verbs with wedi: `should have...', `could have...', `might have...', etc. 21 Colloquial passive construction with cael 22 Stative passives with wedi and heb Degrees 23 Formal/media (or short) passive in -ir and -wyd 24 More conjugated prepositions 25 Compound prepositions 26 Miscellaneous pronouns I 27 Miscellaneous pronouns II 28 Gwybod `know'; sa i, so ti, etc. (neg) 29 Summary of SM 30 Conjunctions I 31 Conjunctions II 32 Focus I: principles 33 Focus II: VNs, bod 34 Focus III: mai and taw 35 Summary of sy 36 Mutation of verb-forms in more formal styles 37 Literary Welsh verbs I: the tense system of Literary Welsh 38 Literary Welsh verbs II: forms of bod 39 Literary Welsh verbs III: irregulars; subjunctive forms 40 Literary Welsh verbs IV: autonomous/impersonal forms Key to exercises Glossary of technical terms Vocabularies: Welsh-English; English-Welsh