This book examines the proliferation of international courts and tribunals at the global, regional, and local level. The topics covered range from the reasons for their marked specialization to the demand for international justice and the growing confidence in international judicial bodies and their functions. The choice of courts and tribunals covered has been based on the distinctive character of each of them in the context of globalization or localism. At the global level, the establishment of new international courts and tribunals with global jurisdiction - such as the International Court of Justice, the International Criminal Court, and the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea - are considered. At the regional level, courts and tribunals operating under the auspices of regional organizations in the field of economic integration and regional systems covering human rights are examined. Finally, as regards the phenomenon of localism, the book analyzes the proliferation of new local courts and tribunals with differing jurisdiction ratione materiae, ratione personae, and ratione loci. The myriad of courts and tribunals poses new challenges to the international order: how should we deal with conflicts of jurisdiction and of divergent interpretations of international law by different dispute settlement institutions? This book offers valuable insights to answer these questions.