This book gives an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of international humanitarian law or the laws of war. The author has traced the history of the laws of war and examined their relations with human rights and refugee laws. The topics covered include protection to the victims of war: prisoners, civilians, women, children, the natural environment and cultural property. The book contains an updated account of the functioning of the International Criminal Court, and explores the concept of command responsibility, as well as the area of private military and security companies. Besides discussing the law during air and naval warfare, the author has critically examined certain challenges which humanitarian law is facing today from cyber warfare; nuclear, phosphorous and depleted uranium weapons; the use of chemical agents; and targeted killing. This book is an invaluable resource for anyone interested or working in the field of international humanitarian law: teachers, students, lawyers, government officials, military and police personnel, researchers and human rights activists.