International Migration: Prospects and Policies offers a comprehensive, up-to-date survey of global patterns of international migration and the policies employed to manage the flows. It shows that international migration is not rooted in poverty or rapid population growth, but in the expansion and consolidation of global markets. As nations are structurally transformed by their incorporation into global markets, people are displaced from traditional livelihoods and become international migrants. In seeking to work abroad, they do not necessarily move to the closest or richest destination, but to places already connected to their countries of origin socially, economically, and politically. When they move, migrants rely heavily on social networks created by earlier waves of immigrants, and, in recent years, professional migration brokers have become increasingly common. Developing countries generally benefit from international migration because migrant savings and remittances provide foreign earnings to finance balance of payments deficits and make productive investments.
Some developing nations have gone so far as to establish programs or ministries dedicated to the export of workers. Developed nations, in contrast, focus more on the social and economic costs of immigrants and seek to reduce their numbers, regulate their characteristics, and limit their access to social services. Over time, receiving nations have gravitated toward a similar set of restrictive policies, yielding undocumented migration as a worldwide phenomenon. Globalization also creates infrastructures of transportation, communication, and social networks to put developed societies within reach. In the latter, ageing populations and segmenting markets create a persistent demand for immigrant workers. All these trends are likely to intensify in the coming years to make immigration policy a key political issue in the twenty-first century.
J. Edward Taylor is Professor of Agricultural and Resource Economics at the University of California, Davis. He was an Appointed Member to the U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform from 1995-97, and is author of a number of publications on migration. Douglas S. Massey is Professor of Sociology and Public Policy at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public Policy and International Affairs, Princeton University. He is author of a number of publications on migration, Latin American society, and urban sociology.
1. Introduction ; PART I: PROSPECTS ; 2. Population Growth and International Migration ; 3. The Effects of Political and Economic Transition on International Migration in Central and Eastern Europe ; 4. Trends in International Migration in and from Africa ; 5. International Migration in the Asia-Pacific Region: Emerging Trends and Issues ; 6. Immigration and the Labor Market in Metropolitan Buenos Aires ; 7. Mexican Migration to the United States: The Effect of NAFTA ; 8. Immigrants in the U.S. Economy ; PART II: POLICIES IN SENDING NATIONS ; 9. Remittances, Savings, and Development in Migrant-Sending Areas ; 10. Labor Export Strategies in Asia ; 11. The Role of Recruiters in Labor Migration ; 12. Return Migration in the Philippines: Issues and Policies ; 13. International Migration, Identity, and Development in Oceania: A Synthesis of Ideas ; PART III: POLICIES IN RECEIVING NATIONS ; 14. Policies and Immigrant Skills: Evidence from the U.S. Immigrant Cohorts of 1977, 1982, and 1994 ; 15. Admissions Policies in Europe ; 16. The New European Asylum Regime ; 17. Immigrants and the Welfare State in Europe ; 18. The Legacy of Welfare Reform for U.S. Immigrants ; 19. Controlling International Migration through Enforcement: The Case of the United States ; PART IV: PROSPECTS AND POLICIES RECONSIDERED ; 20. Back to the Future: Immigration Research, Immigration Policy, and Globalization in the Twenty-First Century