This book unveils a potent new approach to one of the oldest debates in political economy--that over whether class conflict or group competition is more prevalent in politics. It goes further than any study to date by outlining the conditions under which one type of political conflict is more likely than the other. Michael Hiscox focuses on a critical issue affecting support for and opposition to free trade--factor mobility, or the ability of those who own a factor of production (land, labor, or capital) to move it from one industry to another. He argues that the types of political coalitions that form in trade politics depend largely on the extent to which factors are mobile between industries. Class coalitions are more likely where factor mobility is high, Hiscox demonstrates, whereas narrow, industry-based coalitions predominate where it is low. The book also breaks new ground by backing up the theory it advances with systematic evidence from the history of trade politics in six nations over the last two centuries, using a combination of case studies and quantitative analysis.
It makes fresh conclusions about the forces shaping trade policy outcomes--conclusions that yield surprising insights into the likely evolution of the global trading system and U.S. trade policy in particular. International Trade and Political Conflict is a major contribution to the scholarly literature while being accessible to anyone interested in understanding and predicting developments in trade policy.
Michael J. Hiscox is the John L. Loeb Associate Professor of the Social Sciences at Harvard University. This book is based on his dissertation, done at Harvard University, which was awarded the Helen Dwight Reid Prize for Best Dissertation in International Relations by the American Political Science Association in 1997.
LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES ix PREFACE AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xiii PART I: TRADE THEORY, FACTOR MOBILITY, AND POLITICAL CONFLICT 1 CHAPTER ONE: Trade, Distribution, and Factor Mobility 3 CHAPTER TWO: Historical Patterns in Mobility: Evidence from Six Nations 12 CHAPTER THREE: Coalitions in Trade Politics: Parties, Peak Associations, and Groups 35 PART II: POLITICAL CONFLICT IN SIX NATIONS OVER TRADE 43 CHAPTER FOUR: The United States 45 CHAPTER FIVE: Britain 71 CHAPTER SIX: France 83 CHAPTER SEVEN: Sweden 96 CHAPTER EIGHT: Canada 104 CHAPTER NINE: Australia 114 CHAPTER TEN: Lessons from the Case Studies 128 PART III: CONFLICT IN THE U.S. CONGRESS OVER TRADE 131 CHAPTER ELEVEN: Historical Changes in Coalitions 133 CHAPTER TWELVE: Quantitative Analysis of Voting on Major Trade Legislation-1824 to 1994 145 PART IV: CONCLUSION 159 CHAPTER THIRTEEN: Conclusions, Qualifications, and Implications 161 APPENDIXES 165 A Mathematical Appendix to Chapter 1 167 B Data and Sources for Chapter 2 171 C Data and Sources for Chapters 11 and 12 176 BIBLIOGRAPHY 185 INDEX 201