This is the fifth in a series initiated in 1989 by the International Commission for Optics (ICO). These books, which are published every three years, highlight the advances in optics that are underway at the time of their publication. These are a collection of significant contributions from leading scientists and engineers throughout the world. It shows the diverse role optics play in modern society, with optics now taking its place along with mechanical, thermal, electrical and electronic options, in order to bring solutions. The world is coming to recognize the ubiquitous nature of optics and its primarily enabling role in our everyday world.