Despite increasing interest in intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) as causes of significant morbidity and mortality among the critically ill, unanswered questions cloud the understanding of the pathophysiology of these conditions: * Are IAH and ACS synonymous? * What are the ideal methods of measuring and lowering intra-abdominal pressure (IAP)? * When should we think of IAH? * Can IAH be prevented? * What level of IAP requires abdominal decompression? Written by two experts in critical care and IAP, Intra-Abdominal Hypertension is a distillation of the current literature and furthers the understanding of these complex critical conditions. Using a step-by-step approach and illustrative figures, this clinical handbook presents a concise overview of consensus definitions, measurement methods, organ assessment and treatment options. Intra-Abdominal Hypertension is essential reading for all members of the intensive care multidisciplinary team, including experienced and junior physicians, anesthetists and nurses.
Manu Malbrain, MD, PhD is Director of ICU and High Care Burn Unit, ZNA Stuivenberg, Antwerp. He is an ESICM Chris Stoutenbeek Award winner and the founding President of The World Society of the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (WSACS). Jan De Waele, MD, PhD is Senior Lecturer at Ghent University and an intensivist at Ghent University Hospital, Ghent. He is Chair of the Clinical Trials Working Group of the WSACS.
List of abbreviations; Part I. Understanding Intra-Abdominal Hypertension: What to Worry About?: 1. What is intra-abdominal pressure?; 2. Definitions; 3. Principles of IAP measurement; 4. Systems available to measure IAP; 5. Pitfalls of IAP monitoring; Part II. Underlying Predisposing Conditions: When to Worry?: 6. Decreased abdominal compliance; 7. Increased abdominal content; 8. Capillary leak and fluid resuscitation; Part III. Specific Conditions: When to Worry More?: 9. Pancreatitis; 10. Children; 11. Trauma; 12. Burns; 13. Obesity; 14. Pregnancy and others; Part IV. Consequences of Intra-Abdominal Hypertension: Why to Worry?: 15. Cardiovascular system and IAH; 16. Respiratory system and IAH; 17. Renal system and IAH; 18. Central nervous system and IAH; 19. Other organs and IAH; 20. How to define gastrointestinal failure?; 21. Polycompartment syndromes; Part V. Treatment: 22. Improvement of abdominal wall compliance; 23. Evacuation of intra-luminal contents; 24. Evacuations of abdominal fluid collections; 25. Correction of capillary leaks and fluid balance; 26. Specific treatments for intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome; 27. Surgical treatment; 28. Open abdomen management and temporary abdominal closure; Part VI. The Future: 29. The future of IAH and ACS; Index.