Introduction to Catalysis and Industrial Catalytic Processes

Introduction to Catalysis and Industrial Catalytic Processes

By: Lucas Dorazio (author), C. H. Bartholomew (author), Robert J. Farrauto (author)Hardback

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Introduces major catalytic processes including products from the petroleum, chemical, environmental and alternative energy industries * Provides an easy to read description of the fundamentals of catalysis and some of the major catalytic industrial processes used today * Offers a rationale for process designs based on kinetics and thermodynamics * Alternative energy topics include the hydrogen economy, fuels cells, bio catalytic (enzymes) production of ethanol fuel from corn and biodiesel from vegetable oils * Problem sets of included with answers available to faculty who use the book

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About Author

Robert J. Farrauto, PHD, is Professor of Practice in the Earth and Environmental Engineering Department at Columbia University in the City of New York. He retired from BASF (formerly Engelhard) as a Research Vice President after 37 years of service. He has over 40 years industrial experience in catalysis and has commercialized a number of technologies in the environmental, chemical and alternative energy fields. He holds 58 US patents and over 115 peer-reviewed journal publications. He teaches graduate and undergraduate courses focusing on catalysis. He is a co-author of Fundamentals of Industrial Catalytic Processes, 2nd Edition and Catalytic Air Pollution Control: Commercial Technology, 3rd Edition. Lucas Dorazio, PhD is a Research Chemical Engineer at BASF Corporation, Iselin, NJ where he is engaged in reforming and environmental technology. He is also Adjunct assistant professor at New Jersey Institute of Technology where he teaches environmental and industrial catalysis. Calvin H. Bartholomew, PhD is Emeritus Professor at Brigham Young University. He continues to conduct catalysis research, is active in consulting and does specialized teaching for AICHE short courses in catalysis. He has been principal investigator or co-investigator on over 60 grants and contracts and has supervised more than 175 research students. He is the author or co-author of 5 books and 120 peer-reviewed papers and reviews with emphasis on catalysis.


Preface Acknowledgments List of Figures Nomenclature 1 Catalyst Fundamentals Industrial Catalysis 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Catalyzed versus Non-catalyzed Reactions 1.2.1 Example Reaction: Liquid Phase Redox Reaction 1.2.2 Example Reaction: CO Oxidation 1.3 Physical Structure of a Heterogeneous Catalyst 1.3.1 Active Species 1.3.2 Promoters 1.3.3 Carriers 1.3.4 Structure of the Catalyst and Catalytic Reactor 1.4 Adsorption and Kinetic Models for Heterogeneous Catalysis 1.4.1 Langmuir Isotherm 1.4.2 Reaction Kinetic Models Langmuir-Hinshelwood Kinetic Mechanism Mars van Krevelen Kinetic Mechanism Eley-Rideal Kinetic Mechanism Kinetic vs /empirical models 1.5 Chemical and Physical Steps Occurring during Heterogeneous Catalysis 1.5.1 Mass Transfer Phenomena and Surface Reaction 1.5.2 Catalyst Effectiveness and Concentration Gradients 1.5.3 The Rate Limiting Step 1.6 Selectivity 1.6.1 Examples of Selectivity calculations for reactions with multiple products 1.6.2 Carbon Balance 1.6.3 Experimental methods for measuring carbon balance 2 The Preparation of Catalytic Materials 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Carrier Materials 2.2.1 Al2O3 2.2.2 SiO2 2.2.3 TiO2 2.2.4 Zeolites 2.2.5 CeO2 2.2.6 Carbons 2.3 Incorporating the Active Material into the Carrier 2.3.1 Impregnation 2.3.2 Incipient Wetness or Capillary Impregnation 2.3.3 Electrostatic Adsorption 2.3.4 Fixing the Catalytic Species 2.3.5 Drying and Calcining 2.4 Forming the Final Shape of the Catalyst 2.4.1 Powders Milling and Sieving Spray Drying 2.4.2 Pellets, Pills, and Rings 2.4.3 Extrudates 2.4.4 Granules 2.4.5 Monolithic Catalysts 2.5 Catalyst Physical Structure and Its Relationship to Performance 2.6 Nomenclature for Dispersed Catalysts 3. Catalyst Characterization 3.1. Introduction 3.2. Physical Properties of Catalysts 3.2.1. Surface Area and Pore Size Nitrogen Porosimetry Mercury Porosimetry 3.2.2. Physical Properties of Particulate Catalysts Particle Size Distribution Mechanical Strength 3.2.3. Physical Properties of Washcoated Catalyst Washcoat Thickness Washcoat Adhesion 3.3. Chemical and Physical Morphology Structures of Catalytic Materials 3.3.1. Elemental Analysis 3.3.2. Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) 3.3.3. Morphology of Catalytic Materials by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) 3.3.4. Location and Analysis of Species within the Catalyst by Electron Microscopy 3.3.5. Structural Analysis by X-Ray Diffraction 3.3.6. Structural and Morphology of Al2O3 carriers 3.3.7. Dispersion or Crystallite Size of Catalytic Species Chemisorption Transmission Electron Microscopy 3.3.8. X-Ray Diffraction 3.3.9. Surface Composition of Catalysts by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy 3.3.10. The Bonding Environment of metal oxides by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 3.4. Spectroscopy 4 Reaction Rate in Catalytic Reactors 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Space Velocity, Space Time, and Residence Time 4.3 Definition of Reaction Rate 4.4 Rate of Surface Kinetics 4.4.1 Empirical Power Rate Expressions 4.4.2 Experimental Measurement of Empirical Kinetic Parameters 4.4.3 Accounting for Chemical Equilibrium in Empirical Rate Expression 4.4.4 Special Case for First Order Isothermal Reaction 4.5 Rate of Bulk Mass Transfer 4.5.1 Overview of Bulk Mass Transfer Rate 4.5.2 Origin of Bulk Mass Transfer Rate Expression 4.6 Rate of Pore Diffusion 4.6.1 Overview of Pore Diffusion Rate 4.6.2 Pore Diffusion Theory 4.7 Activation Energy and The Rate Limiting Process 4.8 Reactor Bed Pressure Drop 4.9 Summary 5 Catalyst Deactivation 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Thermal Induced Deactivation 5.2.1 Sintering of Catalytic Species 5.2.2 Sintering of Carrier 5.2.3 Catalytic Species-Carrier Interactions 5.3 Poisoning 5.3.1 Selective Poisoning 5.3.2 Non-Selective Poisoning 5.4 Coking and catalyst regeneration 6. Generating Hydrogen and Synthesis Gas by Catalytic Hydrocarbon Steam Reforming 6.1. Introduction 6.2. Large Scale Industrial Process for Hydrogen Generation 6.2.1. General Overview 6.2.2. Hydrodesulfurization 6.2.3. Hydrogen via Steam Reforming & Partial Oxidation Steam Reforming Deactivation of Steam Reforming Catalyst Pre-reforming Partial Oxidation & Autothermal Reforming 6.2.4. Water Gas Shift Deactivation of Water Gas Shift Catalyst 6.2.5. Safety Considerations during Catalyst Removal 6.2.6. CO Removal Methods Pressure Swing Adsorption Methanation Reaction Preferential Oxidation 6.2.7. Hydrogen Generation for Ammonia Synthesis 6.2.8. Hydrogen Generation for Methanol Synthesis 6.2.9. Synthesis Gas for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis 6.3. Small Scale Hydrogen Generation for Fuel Cells 6.3.1. New Reactor Designs for the Hydrogen Economy 6.3.2. Steam Reforming 6.3.3. Water Gas Shift 6.3.4. CO Removal via Preferential Oxidation (PROX) 6.3.5. Combustion 6.3.6. Autothermal Reforming (ATR) of Complicated Fuels 6.3.7. Steam Reforming of Methanol: Portable Power Applications 6.4. Summary 7. Ammonia, Methanol, Fischer-Tropsch production 7.1. Ammonia Synthesis 7.1.1. Thermodynamics 7.1.2. Reaction Chemistry and Catalyst Design 7.1.3. Process Design 7.1.4. Catalyst Deactivation 7.2. Methanol Synthesis 7.2.1. Process Design 7.2.2. Catalyst Deactivation 7.3. Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis 7.3.1. Process Design 7.3.2. Catalyst Deactivation 8. Selective Oxidation 8.1 Nitric Acid 8.1.1 Reaction Chemistry & Catalyst Design Importance of Selectivity The PtRh Alloy Catalyst 8.1.2 Nitric Acid Process Design 8.1.3 Catalyst Deactivation 8.2 Hydrogen Cyanide 8.2.1 Reaction Chemistry & Catalyst Design 8.2.2 HCN Process Design 8.2.3 Catalyst Deactivation 8.3 The Clause Process: Oxidation of H2S 8.3.1 Reaction Chemistry & Catalyst Design 8.3.2 Clause Process Design 8.3.3 Catalyst Deactivation 8.4 Sulfuric Acid 8.4.1 Reaction Chemistry & Catalyst Design 8.4.2 Sulfuric Acid Production Process 8.4.3 Catalyst Deactivation 8.5 Ethylene Oxide 8.5.1 Reaction Chemistry & Catalyst Design 8.5.2 Ethylene Oxide Production Process 8.5.3 Catalyst Deactivation 8.6 Formaldehyde 8.6.1 Low Methanol Production Process Fe, Mo Catalyst 8.6.2 High Methanol Production Process Ag Catalyst 8.7 Acrylic Acid 8.7.1 Reaction Chemistry & Catalyst Design 8.7.2 Acrylic Acid Process Design 8.7.3 Catalyst Deactivation 8.8 Maleic Anhydride 8.8.1 Catalyst Deactivation 8.9 Acrylonitrile 8.9.1 Reaction Chemistry & Catalyst Design 8.9.2 Acrylonitrile Production Process 8.9.3 Catalyst Deactivation 9. Hydrogenation, Dehydrogenation, Alkylation 9.1. Introduction 9.2. Hydrogenation Reactor Design 9.2.1. Hydrogenation in Stirred Tank Reactors 9.2.2. Kinetics of a Slurry Phase Hydrogenation Reaction 9.2.3. Design Equation for the Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) 9.3. Hydrogenation Reactions and Catalysts 9.3.1. Catalytic Hydrogenation of Vegetable Oils for Edible Food Products 9.3.2. Hydrogenation of Functional Groups 9.3.3. Biomass (Corn Husks) to a Polymer 9.3.4. Comparing Base Metal and Precious Metal Catalysts 9.4. Dehydrogenation 9.5. Alkylation 10. Petroleum Processing 10.1 Crude Oil 10.2 Distillation 10.3 Hydro-demetallization (HDM) and Hydro-desulfurization (HDS) 10.4 Hydrocarbon Cracking 10.4.1 Fluid Catalytic Cracking 10.4.2 Hydrocracking 10.5 Naphtha Reforming 11. Homogeneous Catalysis and Polymerization Reactions 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Hydroformulation- Aldehydes from olefins 11.3 Carbonylation: Acetic Acid Production 11.4 Enzymatic Catalysis 11.5 Polyolefins 11.5.1 Polyethylene 11.5.2 Polypropylene 12. Catalytic treatment from Stationary Sources: HC, CO and NOx and O3 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Catalytic Incineration of Hydrocarbons and Carbon Monoxide 12.2.1 Monolith (Honeycomb) Reactors 12.2.2 Catalyzed Monolith (Honeycomb) Structures 12.2.3 Reactor Sizing 12.2.4 Catalyst Deactivation 12.2.5 Regeneration of Deactivated Catalysts 12.3 Food Processing 12.3.1 Catalyst Deactivation 12.4 Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Reduction from Stationary Sources 12.4.1 SCR technology 12.5 Ozone Abatement in aircraft cabin air 12.5.1 Deactivation 12.6 CO2 Reduction 13. Catalytic Abatement of Gasoline Engines 13.1 Emissions and Regulations 13.1.1 Origins of Emissions 13.1.2 Regulations in the United States 13.1.3 The Federal Test Procedure for the USA 13.2 Catalytic Reactions Occurring During Catalytic Abatement 13.3 First-Generation Converters: Oxidation Catalyst 13.4 The failure of non-precious metals: A summary of catalyst history 13.4.1 Deactivation and stabilization of precious metal oxidation catalysts 13.5 Supporting the catalyst in the exhaust 13.5.1 Ceramic Monoliths 13.5.2 Metal Monoliths 13.6 Preparing the monolith catalyst 13.7 Rate control regimes in automotive catalysts 13.8 Catalyzed Monolith Nomenclature 13.9 Precious Metal Recovery from Catalytic Converters 13.10 Monitoring catalytic activity in a monolith 13.11 The failure of the traditional beaded (or particulate) catalysts for automotive applications 13.12 NOx, CO and HC Reduction: The Three Way Catalyst 13.13 Simulated aging methods 13.14 Close coupled catalyst 13.15 Final Comments 14. Diesel Engine Emission Abatement 14.1 Introduction 14.1.1 Emissions from Diesel Engines 14.1.2 Analytical Procedures for Particulates 14.2 Catalytic Technology for Reducing Emissions from Diesel Engines 14.2.1 Diesel Oxidation Catalyst 14.2.2 Diesel Soot Abatement 14.2.3 Controlling NOx in Diesel Engine Exhaust 15. Alternative Energy Sources using Catalysis: Bioethanol by Fermentation, Bio-Diesel by Trans Esterification, and H2 Based Fuel Cells 15.1 Introduction: Sources of non-fossil fuel energy 15.2 Sources of Non-Fossil Fuels 15.2.1 Bio-diesel 15.2.2 Bioethanol 15.2.3 Ligno cellulose biomass 15.2.4 New sources of Natural Gas and Oil-Sands 15.3 Fuel Cells 15.3.1 Markets for Fuel Cells 15.4 Types of Fuel Cells 15.4.1 Low Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell 15.4.2 Solid Polymer Membrane 15.4.3 Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) 15.4.4 Alkaline fuel cell 15.4.5 Phosphoric acid fuel cell 15.4.6 Molten carbonate fuel cell 15.4.7 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell 15.5 The Ideal Hydrogen Economy Index

Product Details

  • publication date: 27/05/2016
  • ISBN13: 9781118454602
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 352
  • ID: 9781118454602
  • weight: 584
  • ISBN10: 111845460X

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