Newly updated based on extensive reviewer feedback, this affordable introductory text remains focused on the essentials necessary for success in General Chemistry. Introduction to Chemistry Principles, Eleventh Edition focuses on the most important topics - omitting organic and biochemistry chapters - and teaches the problem-solving skills readers need. Each topic is introduced and developed step by step until reaching the level of sophistication required for further course work.
Note: There is no difference in content between the version with the plain cover and the version with the white and orange cover.
NOTE: Each chapter concludes with Concepts to Remember, Key Terms, Practice Problems, Multi-Concept Problems and Multiple-Choice Practice Test. Chapter 1: The Science of Chemistry 1.1 Chemistry-A Scientific Discipline 1.2 Scientific Research and Technology 1.3 The Scope of Chemistry 1.4 How Chemists Discover Things-The Scientific Method 1.5 The Limitations of the Scientific Method 1.6 Application Limitations for Methods of Science Chapter 2 Numbers from Measurements 2.1 The Importance of Measurement 2.2 Exact and Inexact Numbers 2.3 Accuracy, Precision, and Error 2.4 Uncertainty in Measurements 2.5 Significant Figures 2.6 Significant Figures and Mathematical Operations 2.7 Expressing Numbers in Scientific Notation 2.8 Mathematical Operations in Scientific Notation Chapter 3 Unit Systems and Dimensional Analysis 3.1 The Metric System of Units 3.2 Metric Units of Length 3.3 Metric Units of Mass 3.4 Metric Units of Volume 3.5 Units in Mathematical Operations 3.6 Conversion Factors 3.7 Dimensional Analysis 3.8 Density 3.9 Equivalence Conversion Factors Other Than Density 3.10 Percentage and Percent Error 3.11 Temperature Scales Chapter 4 Basic Concepts About Matter 4.1 Chemistry-The Study of Matter 4.2 Physical States of Matter 4.3 Properties of Matter 4.4 Changes in Matter 4.5 Pure Substances and Mixtures 4.6 Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Mixtures 4.7 Elements and Compounds 4.8 Discovery and Abundance of the ElementsTHE HUMAN SIDE OF CHEMISTRY 1: Joseph Priestley (1733-1804) 4.9 Names and Chemical Symbols of the Elements THE HUMAN SIDE OF CHEMISTRY 2: Joens Jakob Berzelius (1779-1848) Chapter 5 Atoms, Molecules, and Subatomic Particles 5.1 The Atom THE HUMAN SIDE OF CHEMISTRY 3: John Dalton (1766-1844) 5.2 The Molecule 5.3 Natural and Synthetic Compounds 5.4 Chemical Formulas 5.5 Subatomic Particles: Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons 5.6 Atomic Number and Mass Number 5.7 Isotopes 5.8 Atomic Masses 5.9 Evidence Supporting the Existence and Arrangement of Subatomic Particles THE HUMAN SIDE OF CHEMISTRY 4: Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937) Chapter 6 Electronic Structure and Chemical Periodicity 6.1 The Periodic Law 6.2 The Periodic Table THE HUMAN SIDE OF CHEMISTRY 5: Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (1834-1907) 6.3 The Energy of an Electron THE HUMAN SIDE OF CHEMISTRY 6: Erwin Schroedinger (1887-1961) 6.4 Electron Shells 6.5 Electron Subshells 6.6 Electron Orbitals 6.7 Electron Configurations 6.8 Electron Orbital Diagrams 6.9 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Law 6.10 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table 6.11 Classification Systems for the Elements 6.12 Chemical Periodicity Chapter 7 Chemical Bonds 7.1 Types of Chemical Bonds 7.2 Valence Electrons and Lewis Symbols THE HUMAN SIDE OF CHEMISTRY 7: Gilbert Newton Lewis (1875-1946) 7.3 The Octet Rule 7.4 The Ionic Bond Model 7.5 The Sign and Magnitude of Ionic Charge 7.6 Lewis Structures for Ionic Compounds 7.7 Chemical Formulas for Ionic Compounds 7.8 Structure of Ionic Compounds 7.9 Polyatomic Ions 7.10 The Covalent Bond Model 7.11 Lewis Structures for Molecular Compounds 7.12 Single, Double, and Triple Covalent Bonds 7.13 Valence Electron Count and Number of Covalent Bonds Formed 7.14 Coordinate Covalent Bonds 7.15 Resonance Structures 7.16 Systematic Procedures for Drawing Lewis Structures 7.17 Molecular Geometry 7.18 Electronegativity THE HUMAN SIDE OF CHEMISTRY 8: Linus Carl Pauling (1901-1994) 7.19 Bond Polarity 7.20 Molecular Polarity Chapter 8 Chemical Nomenclature 8.1 Classification of Compounds for Nomenclature Purposes 8.2 Types of Binary Ionic Compounds 8.3 Nomenclature for Binary Ionic Compounds 8.4 Chemical Formulas for Polyatomic Ions 8.5 Nomenclature for Ionic Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions 8.6 Nomenclature for Binary Molecular Compounds 8.7 Nomenclature for Acids 8.8 System Procedures for Using Nomenclature Rules Chapter 9 Chemical Calculations: The Mole Concept and Chemical Formulas 9.1 The Law of Definite Proportions THE HUMAN SIDE OF CHEMISTRY 9: Joseph-Louis Proust (1754-1826) 9.2 Calculation of Formula Masses 9.3 Significant Figures and Atomic Mass 9.4 Mass Percent Composition of a Compound 9.5 The Mole: The Chemist's Counting Unit THE HUMAN SIDE OF CHEMISTRY 10: Lorenzo Romano Amedeo Carlo Avogadro (1776-1856) 9.6 The Mass of a Mole 9.7 Significant Figures and Avogadro's Number 9.8 Relationship between Atomic Mass Units and Gram Units 9.9 The Mole and Chemical Formulas 9.10 The Mole and Chemical Calculations 9.11 Purity of Samples 9.12 Empirical and Molecular Formulas 9.13 Determination of Empirical Formulas 9.14 Determination of Molecular Formulas Chapter 10 Chemical Calculations Involving Chemical Equations 10.1 The Law of Conservation of Mass THE HUMAN SIDE OF CHEMISTRY 11: Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier (1743-1794) 10.2 Writing Chemical Equations 10.3 Chemical Equation Coefficients 10.4 Balancing Procedures for Chemical Equations 10.5 Special Symbols Used in Chemical Equations 10.6 Classes of Chemical Reactions 10.7 Chemical Equations and the Mole Concept 10.8 Balanced Chemical Equations and the Law of Conservation of Mass 10.9 Calculations Based on Chemical Equations-Stoichiometry 10.10 The Limiting Reactant Concept 10.11 Yields: Theoretical, Actual, and Percent 10.12 Simultaneous and Sequential Chemical Reactions Chapter 11 States of Matter 11.1 Factors That Determine Physical State 11.2 Property Differences among Physical States 11.3 The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter 11.4 The Solid State 11.5 The Liquid State 11.6 The Gaseous State 11.7 A Comparison of Solids, Liquids, and Gases 11.8 Endothermic and Exothermic Changes of State 11.9 Heat Energy and Specific Heat 11.10 Temperature Changes as a Substance Is Heated 11.11 Energy and Changes of State 11.12 Heat Energy Calculations 11.13 Evaporation of Liquids 11.14 Vapor Pressure of Liquids 11.15 Boiling and Boiling Points 11.16 Intermolecular Forces in Liquids 11.17 Hydrogen Bonding and the Properties of Water Chapter 12 Gas Laws 12.1 Properties of Some Common Gases 12.2 Gas Law Variables 12.3 Boyle's Law: A Pressure-Volume Relationship THE HUMAN SIDE OF CHEMISTRY 12: Robert Boyle (1627-1691) 12.4 Charles's Law: A Temperature-Volume Relationship THE HUMAN SIDE OF CHEMISTRY 13: Jacques Alexandre Cesar Charles (1746-1823) 12.5 Gay-Lussac's Law: A Temperature-Pressure Relationship THE HUMAN SIDE OF CHEMISTRY 14: Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (1778-1850) 12.6 The Combined Gas Law 12.7 Avogadro's Law 12.8 An Ideal Gas 12.9 The Ideal Gas Law 12.10 Modified Forms of the Ideal Gas Law Equation 12.11 Volumes of Gases in Chemical Reactions 12.12 Volumes of Gases and the Limiting Reactant Concept 12.13 Molar Volume of a Gas 12.14 Chemical Calculations Using Molar Volume 12.15 Mixtures of Gases 12.16 Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures Chapter 13 Solutions 13.1 Characteristics of Solutions 13.2 Solubility 13.3 Solution Formation 13.4 Solubility Rules 13.5 Solution Concentrations 13.6 Percentage Concentration Unit 13.7 Parts per Million and Parts per Billion Concentration Unit 13.8 Molarity Concentration Units 13.9 Molality and Chemical Reactions in Solution 13.10 Dilution Calculations 13.11 Molarity Concentration Unit Chapter 14 Acids, Bases, and Salts 14.1 Arrhenius Acid-Base Theory THE HUMAN SIDE OF CHEMISTRY 15: Svante August Arrhenius (1859-1927) 14.2 Bronsted-Lowry Acid-Base Theory 14.3 Conjugate Acids and Bases 14.4 Mono-, Di-, and Triprotic Acids 14.5 Strengths of Acids and Bases 14.6 Salts 14.7 Reactions of Acids 14.8 Reactions of Bases 14.9 Reactions of Salts 14.10 Self-Ionization of Water 14.11 The pH Scale 14.12 Hydrolysis of Salts 14.13 Buffers 14.14 Acid-Base Titrations Chapter 15 Chemical Equations: Net Ionic and Oxidation-Reduction 15.1 Types of Chemical Equations 15.2 Electrolytes 15.3 Ionic and Net Ionic Equations 15.4 Oxidation-Reduction Terminology 15.5 Oxidation Numbers 15.6 Redox and Nonredox Chemical Reactions 15.7 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations 15.8 Oxidation Number Method for Balancing Redox Equations 15.9 Half-Reaction Method for Balancing Redox Equations 15.10 Disproportionation Reactions 15.11 Stoichiometric Calculations Involving Ions Chapter 16 Reaction Rates and Chemical Equilibrium 16.1 Collision Theory 16.2 Endothermic and Exothermic Chemical Reactions 16.3 Factors That Influence Chemical Reaction Rates 16.4 Chemical Equilibrium 16.5 Equilibrium Mixture Stoichiometry 16.6 Equilibrium Constants 16.7 Equilibrium Position 16.8 Temperature Dependency of Equilibrium Constants 16.9 Le Ch (R)telier's Principle THE HUMAN SIDE OF CHEMISTRY 16: Henri-Louis Le Ch (R)telier (1850-1936) 16.10 Forcing Chemical Reactions to Completion Glossary Answer to Odd-Numbered Problems and All Self-Test Problems Index