Introduction to Cryptography with Mathematical Foundations and Computer Implementations (Discrete Mathematics and its Applications v. 58)
By: Alexander Stanoyevitch (author)Hardback
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From the exciting history of its development in ancient times to the present day, Introduction to Cryptography with Mathematical Foundations and Computer Implementations provides a focused tour of the central concepts of cryptography. Rather than present an encyclopedic treatment of topics in cryptography, it delineates cryptographic concepts in chronological order, developing the mathematics as needed. Written in an engaging yet rigorous style, each chapter introduces important concepts with clear definitions and theorems. Numerous examples explain key points while figures and tables help illustrate more difficult or subtle concepts. Each chapter is punctuated with "Exercises for the Reader;" complete solutions for these are included in an appendix. Carefully crafted exercise sets are also provided at the end of each chapter, and detailed solutions to most odd-numbered exercises can be found in a designated appendix. The computer implementation section at the end of every chapter guides students through the process of writing their own programs.
A supporting website provides an extensive set of sample programs as well as downloadable platform-independent applet pages for some core programs and algorithms. As the reliance on cryptography by business, government, and industry continues and new technologies for transferring data become available, cryptography plays a permanent, important role in day-to-day operations. This self-contained sophomore-level text traces the evolution of the field, from its origins through present-day cryptosystems, including public key cryptography and elliptic curve cryptography.
Alexander Stanoyevitch is a professor at California State University-Dominguez Hills. He completed his doctorate in mathematical analysis at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, and has held academic positions at the University of Hawaii and the University of Guam. Dr. Stanoyevitch has taught many upper-level classes to mathematics and computer science students, has published several articles in leading mathematical journals, and has been an invited speaker at numerous lectures and conferences in the United States, Europe, and Asia. His research interests include areas of both pure and applied mathematics.
An Overview of the Subject Basic Concepts Functions One-to-One and Onto Functions, Bijections Inverse Functions Substitution Ciphers Attacks on Cryptosystems The Vigenere Cipher The Playfair Cipher The One-Time Pad, Perfect Secrecy Divisibility and Modular Arithmetic Divisibility Primes Greatest Common Divisors and Relatively Prime Integers The Division Algorithm The Euclidean Algorithm Modular Arithmetic and Congruencies Modular Integer Systems Modular Inverses Extended Euclidean Algorithm Solving Linear Congruencies The Chinese Remainder Theorem The Evolution of Codemaking until the Computer Era Ancient Codes Formal Definition of a Cryptosystem Affine Ciphers Steganography Nulls Homophones Composition of Functions Tabular Form Notation for Permutations The Enigma Machines Cycles (Cyclic Permutations) Dissection of the Enigma Machine into Permutations Special Properties of All Enigma Machines Matrices and the Hill Cryptosystem The Anatomy of a Matrix Matrix Addition, Subtraction, and Scalar Multiplication Matrix Multiplication Preview of the Fact That Matrix Multiplication Is Associative Matrix Arithmetic Definition of an Invertible (Square) Matrix The Determinant of a Square Matrix Inverses of 2x2 Matrices The Transpose of a Matrix Modular Integer Matrices The Classical Adjoint (for Matrix Inversions) The Hill Cryptosystem The Evolution of Codebreaking until the Computer Era Frequency Analysis Attacks The Demise of the Vigenere Cipher The Index of Coincidence Expected Values of the Index of Coincidence How Enigmas Were Attacked Invariance of Cycle Decomposition Form Representation and Arithmetic of Integers in Different Bases Representation of Integers in Different Bases Hex(adecimal) and Binary Expansions Arithmetic with Large Integers Fast Modular Exponentiation Block Cryptosystems and the Data Encryption Standard (DES) The Evolution of Computers into Cryptosystems DES Is Adopted to Fulfill an Important Need The XOR Operation Feistel Cryptosystems A Scaled-Down Version of DES DES The Fall of DES Triple DES Modes of Operation for Block Cryptosystems Some Number Theory and Algorithms The Prime Number Theorem Fermat's Little Theorem The Euler Phi Function Euler's Theorem Modular Orders of Invertible Modular Integers Primitive Roots Order of Powers Formula Prime Number Generation Fermat's Primality Test Carmichael Numbers The Miller-Rabin Test The Miller-Rabin Test with a Factoring Enhancement The Pollard p - 1 Factoring Algorithm Public Key Cryptography An Informal Analogy for a Public Key Cryptosystem The Quest for Secure Electronic Key Exchange One-Way Functions Review of the Discrete Logarithm Problem The Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange The Quest for a Complete Public Key Cryptosystem The RSA Cryptosystem Digital Signatures and Authentication The El Gamal Cryptosystem Digital Signatures with El Gamal Knapsack Problems The Merkle-Hellman Knapsack Cryptosystem Government Controls on Cryptography A Security Guarantee for RSA Finite Fields in General and GF(28) in Particular Binary Operations Rings Fields Zp[X] = the Polynomials with Coefficients in Zp Addition and Multiplication of Polynomials in Zp[X] Vector Representation of Polynomials Zp[X] Is a Ring Divisibility in Zp[X] The Division Algorithm for Zp[X] Congruencies in Zp[X] Modulo a Fixed Polynomial Building Finite Fields from Zp[X] The Fields GF(24) and GF(28) The Euclidean Algorithm for Polynomials The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Protocol An Open Call for a Replacement to DES Nibbles A Scaled-Down Version of AES Decryption in the Scaled-Down Version of AES AES Byte Representation and Arithmetic The AES Encryption Algorithm The AES Decryption Algorithm Security of the AES Elliptic Curve Cryptography Elliptic Curves over the Real Numbers The Addition Operation for Elliptic Curves Groups Elliptic Curves over Zp The Variety of Sizes of Modular Elliptic Curves The Addition Operation for Elliptic Curves over Zp The Discrete Logarithm Problem on Modular Elliptic Curves An Elliptic Curve Version of the Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange Fast Integer Multiplication of Points on Modular Elliptic Curves Representing Plaintexts on Modular Elliptic Curves An Elliptic Curve Version of the El Gamal Cryptosystem A Factoring Algorithm Based on Elliptic Curves Appendix A: Sets and Basic Counting Principles Appendix B: Randomness and Probability Appendix C: Solutions to All Exercises for the Reader Appendix D: Answers and Brief Solutions to Selected Odd-Numbered Exercises Appendix E: Suggestions for Further Reading References Exercises and Computer Implementations appear at the end of each chapter.
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