Introduction to Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Analysis: A Regression-Based Approach (Methodology in the Social Sciences)

Introduction to Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Analysis: A Regression-Based Approach (Methodology in the Social Sciences)

By: Andrew F. Hayes (author)Hardback

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Explaining the fundamentals of mediation and moderation analysis, this engaging book also shows how to integrate the two using an innovative strategy known as conditional process analysis. Procedures are described for testing hypotheses about the mechanisms by which causal effects operate, the conditions under which they occur, and the moderation of mechanisms. Relying on the principles of ordinary least squares regression, Andrew Hayes carefully explains the estimation and interpretation of direct and indirect effects, probing and visualization of interactions, and testing of questions about moderated mediation. Examples using data from published studies illustrate how to conduct and report the analyses described in the book. Of special value, the book introduces and documents PROCESS, a macro for SPSS and SAS that does all the computations described in the book. The author's website ( offers free downloads of PROCESS plus data files for the book's examples. Unique features include: *Compelling examples (presumed media influence, sex discrimination in the workplace, and more) with real data; boxes with SAS, SPSS, and PROCESS code; and loads of tips, including how to report mediation, moderation and conditional process analyses. *Appendix that presents documentation on use and features of PROCESS. *Online supplement providing data, code, and syntax for the book's examples.

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About Author

Andrew F. Hayes, PhD, is Professor of Quantitative Psychology at The Ohio State University. His research and writing on data analysis has been published widely, and he is the author of Introduction to Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Analysis and Statistical Methods for Communication Science, as well as coauthor, with Richard B. Darlington, of Regression Analysis and Linear Models. Dr. Hayes teaches data analysis, primarily at the graduate level, and frequently conducts workshops on statistical analysis throughout the world. His website is


Part I: Fundamental Concepts. Introduction. A Scientist in Training. Questions of Whether, If, How, and When. Conditional Process Analysis. Correlation, Causality, and Statistical Modeling. Statistical Software. Overview of this Book. Chapter Summary. Simple Linear Regression. Correlation and Prediction. The Simple Linear Regression Equation. Statistical Inference. Assumptions for Interpretation and Statistical Inference. Chapter Summary. Multiple Linear Regression. The Multiple Linear Regression Equation. Partial Association and Statistical Control. Statistical Inference in Multiple Regression. Statistical and Conceptual Diagrams. Chapter Summary. Part II: Mediation Analysis. The Simple Mediation Model. Estimation of the Direct, Indirect, and Total Effects of X. Example with Dichotomous X: The Influence of Presumed Media Influence. Statistical Inference.In Example with Continuous X: Economic Stress among Small Business Owners. Chapter Summary. Multiple Mediator Models. The Parallel Multiple Mediator Model. Example Using the Presumed Media Influence Study. Statistical Inference. The Serial Multiple Mediator Model. Complementarity and Competition among Mediators. OLS Regression versus Structural Equation Modeling. Chapter Summary. Part III: Moderation Analysis. Miscellaneous Topics in Mediation Analysis. What About Baron and Kenny? Confounding and Causal Order. Effect Size. Multiple Xs or Ys: Analyze Separately or Simultaneously? Reporting a Mediation Analysis. Chapter Summary. Fundamentals of Moderation Analysis. Conditional and Unconditional Effects. An Example: Sex Discrimination in the Workplace. Visualizing Moderation. Probing an Interaction. Chapter Summary. Extending Moderation Analysis Principles. Moderation Involving a Dichotomous Moderator. Interaction between Two Quantitative Variables. Hierarchical versus Simultaneous Variable Entry. The Equivalence between Moderated Regression Analysis and a 2 x 2 Factorial Analysis of Variance. Chapter Summary. Miscellaneous Topics in Moderation Analysis. Truths and Myths about Mean Centering. The Estimation and Interpretation of Standardized Regression Coefficients in a Moderation Analysis. Artificial Categorization and Subgroups Analysis. More Than One Moderator. Reporting a Moderation Analysis. Chapter Summary. Part IV: Conditional Process Analysis. Conditional Process Analysis. Examples of Conditional Process Models in the Literature. Conditional Direct and Indirect Effects. Example: Hiding Your Feelings from Your Work Team. Statistical Inference. Conditional Process Analysis in PROCESS. Chapter Summary. Further Examples of Conditional Process Analysis. Revisiting the Sexual Discrimination Study. Moderation of the Direct and Indirect Effects in a Conditional Process Model. Visualizing the Direct and Indirect Effects. Mediated Moderation. Chapter Summary. Miscellaneous Topics in Conditional Process Analysis. A Strategy for Approaching Your Analysis. Can a Variable Simultaneously Mediate and Moderate Another Variable's Effect? Comparing Conditional Indirect Effects and a Formal Test of Moderated Mediation. The Pitfalls of Subgroups Analysis. Writing about Conditional Process Modeling. Chapter Summary. Appendix A. Using PROCESS. Appendix B. Monte Carlo Confidence Intervals in SPSS and SAS.

Product Details

  • publication date: 14/06/2013
  • ISBN13: 9781609182304
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 507
  • ID: 9781609182304
  • weight: 1102
  • ISBN10: 1609182308

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