Introduction to Plant Physiology became the best-selling first edition plant physiology text of the 1990's! Now, we're building on the success of prior editions to provide an even more effective fourth edition. Plant Physiology has been praised for its excellent balance of traditional and modern topics, presented in a straightforward style, without overwhelming undergraduates with excessive detail. Its focus is on the ideas and experimental approaches in plant physiology. This is a one-semester course. It assumes that the student has had introductory biology or botany as a pre-requisite.
Chapter 1: Plant Cells and Water. 1.1 Water has Unique Physical and Chemical Properties. 1.2 The Thermal Properties of Water are Biologically Important. 1.3 Water is the Universal Solvent. 1.4 Polarity of Water Molecules Results in Cohesion and Adhesion. 1.5 Water Movement may be Governed by Diffusion or by Bulk Flow. 1.6 Osmosis is the Diffusion of Water Across a Selectively Permeable Membrane. 1.7 Hydrostatic Pressure and Osmotic Pressure are Two Components of Water Potential. 1.8 Water Potential is the Sum of its Component Potentials. 1.9 Dynamic Flux of H 2 O is Associated with Changes in Water Potential. 1.10 Aquaporins Facilitate the Cellular Movement of Water. 1.11 Two-Component Sensing/Signalling Systems are Involved in Osmoregulation. Summary. Chapter Review. Further Reading. Chapter 2: Whole Plant Water Relations. 2.1 Transpiration is Driven by Differences in Vapor Pressure. 2.2 The Driving Force of Transpiration is Differences in Vapor Pressure. 2.3 The Rate of Transpiration is Influenced by Environmental Factors. 2.4 Water Conduction Occurs via Tracheary Elements. 2.5 The Ascent of Xylem SAP is Explained by Combining Transpiration with the Cohesive Forces of Water. 2.6 Water Loss due to Transpiration must be Replenished. 2.7 Roots Absorb and Transport Water. 2.8 The Permeability of Roots to Water Varies. 2.9 Radial Movement of Water Through the Root Involves Two Possible Pathways. Summary. Chapter Review. Further Reading. Chapter 3: Roots, Soils, and Nutrient Uptake. 3.1 The Soil as a Nutrient Reservoir. 3.2 Nutrient Uptake. 3.3 Selective Accumulation of Ions by Roots. 3.4 Electrochemical Gradients and Ion Movement. 3.5 Electrogenic Pumps are Critical for Cellular Active Transport. 3.6 Cellular Ion Uptake Processes are Interactive. 3.7 Root Architecture is Important to Maximize Ion Uptake. 3.8 The Radial Path of Ion Movement Through Roots. 3.9 Root-Microbe Interactions. Summary. Chapter Review. Further Reading. Chapter 4: Plants and Inorganic Nutrients. 4.1 Methods and Nutrient Solutions. 4.2 The Essential Nutrient Elements. 4.3 Beneficial Elements. 4.4 Nutrient Functions and Deficiency Symptoms. 4.5 Toxicity of Micronutrients. Summary. Chapter Review. Further Reading. Chapter 5: Bioenergetics and ATP Synthesis. 5.1 Bioenergetics and Energy Transformations in Living Organisms. 5.2 Energy Transformations and Coupled Reactions. 5.3 Energy Transduction and the Chemiosmotic Synthesis of ATP. Summary. Chapter Review. Further Reading. Chapter 6: The Dual Role of Sunlight: Energy and Information. 6.1 The Physical Nature of Light. 6.2 The Natural Radiation Environment. 6.3 Photoreceptors Absorb Light for use in a Physiological Process. Summary. Chapter Review. Further Reading. Chapter 7: Energy Conservation in Photosynthesis: Harvesting Sunlight. 7.1 Leaves are Photosynthetic Machines that Maximize the Absorption of Light. 7.2 Photosynthesis is an Oxidation-Reduction Process. 7.3 Photosynthetic Electron Transport. 7.4 Photophosphorylation is the Light-Dependent Synthesis of ATP. 7.5 Lateral Heterogeneity is the Unequal Distribution of Thylakoid Complexes. 7.6 Cyanobacteria are Oxygenic. 7.7 Inhibitors of Photosynthetic Electron Transport are Effective Herbicides. Summary Chapter Review. Further Reading. Chapter 8: Energy Conservation in Photosynthesis: CO 2 Assimilation. 8.1 Stomatal Complex Controls Leaf Gas Exchange and Water Loss. 8.2 CO 2 Enters the Leaf by Diffusion. 8.3 How Do Stomata Open and Close? 8.4 Stomatal Movements are Also Controlled by External Environmental Factors. 8.5 The Photosynthetic Carbon Reduction (PCR) Cycle. 8.6 The PCR Cycle is Highly Regulated. 8.7 Chloroplasts of C3 Plants also Exhibit Competing Carbon Oxidation Processes. Summary. Chapter Review. Further Reading. Chapter 9: Allocation, Translocation, and Partitioning of Photoassimilates. 9.1 Starch and Sucrose are Biosynthesized in Two Different Compartments. 9.2 Starch and Sucrose Biosynthesis are Competitive Processes. 9.3 Fructan Biosynthesis is An Alternative Pathway for Carbon Allocation. 9.4 Photoassimilates are Translocated Over Long Distances. 9.5 Sieve Elements are the Principal Cellular Constituents of the Phloem. 9.6 Direction of Translocation is Determined by Source-Sink Relationships. 9.7 Phloem Translocation Occurs by Mass Transfer. 9.8 Phloem Loading and Unloading Regulate Translocation and Partitioning. 9.9 Photoassimilate is Distributed Between Different Metabolic Pathways and Plant Organs. 9.10 Xenobiotic Agrochemicals are Translocated in the Phloem. Summary. Chapter Review. Further Reading. Chapter 10: Cellular Respiration: Unlocking the Energy Stored in Photoassimilates. 10.1 Cellular Respiration Consists of a Series of Pathways by Which Photoassimilates are Oxidized. 10.2 Starch Mobilization. 10.3 Fructan Mobilization is Constitutive. 10.4 Glycolysis Converts Sugars to Pyruvic Acid. 10.5 The Oxidative Pentose Phosphate Pathway is an Alternative Route for Glucose Metabolism. 10.6 The Fate of Pyruvate Depends on the Availability of Molecular Oxygen. 10.7 Oxidative Respiration is Carried out by the Mitochondrion. 10.8 Energy is Conserved in the Form of ATP in Accordance with Chemiosmosis. 10.9 Plants Contain Several Alternative Electron Transport Pathways. 10.10 Many Seeds Store Carbon as Oils that are Converted to Sugar. 10.11 Respiration Provides Carbon Skeletons for Biosynthesis. 10.12 Respiratory Rate Varies with Development and Metabolic State. 10.13 Respiration Rates Respond to Environmental Conditions. Summary. Chapter Review. Further Reading. Chapter 11: Nitrogen Assimilation. 11.1 The Nitrogen Cycle: A Complex Pattern of Exchange. 11.2 Biological Nitrogen Fixation is Exclusively Prokaryotic. 11.3 Legumes Exhibit Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation. 11.4 The Biochemistry of Nitrogen Fixation. 11.5 The Genetics of Nitrogen Fixation. 11.6 NH 3 Produced by Nitrogen Fixation is Converted to Organic Nitrogen. 11.7 Plants Generally Take up Nitrogen in the Form of Nitrate. 11.8 Nitrogen Cycling: Simultaneous Imports and Export. 11.9 Agricultural and Ecosystem Productivity is Dependent on Nitrogen Supply. Summary. Chapter Review. Further Reading. Chapter 12: Carbon and Nitrogen Assimilation and Plant Productivity. 12.1 Productivity Refers to an Increase in Biomass. 12.2 Carbon Economy is Dependent on the Balance Between Photosynthesis and Respiration. 12.3 Productivity is Influenced by a Variety of Environmental Factors. Summary. Chapter Review. Further Reading. Chapter 13: Responses of Plants to Environmental Stress. 13.1 What is Plant Stress? 13.2 Plants Respond to Stress in Several Different Ways. 13.3 Too Much Light Inhibits Photosynthesis. 13.4 Water Stress is a Persistent Threat to Plant Survival. 13.5 Plants are Sensitive to Fluctuations in Temperature. 13.6 Insect Pests and Disease Represent Potential Biotic Stresses. 13.7 There are Features Common to all Stresses. Summary. Chapter Review. Further Reading. Chapter 14: Acclimation to Environmental Stress. 14.1 Plant Acclimation is a Time-Dependent Phenomenon. 14.2 Acclimation is Initiated by Rapid, Short-Term Responses. 14.3 Long-Term Acclimation Alters Phenotype. 14.4 Freezing Tolerance in Herbaceous Species is a Complex Interaction Between Light and Low Temperature. 14.5 Plants Adjust Photosynthetic Capacity in Response to High Temperature. 14.6 Oxygen may Protect During Accimation to Various Stresses. Summary. Chapter Review. Further Reading. Chapter 15: Adaptations to the Environment. 15.1 Sun and Shade Adapted Plants Respond Differentially to Irradiance. 15.2 C4 Plants are Adapted to High Temperature and Drought. 15.3 Crassulacean Acid Metabolism is an Adaptation to Desert Life. 15.4 C4 and CAM Photosynthesis Require Precise Regulation and Temporal Integration. 15.5 Plant Biomes Reflect Myriad Physiological Adaptations. Summary. Chapter Review. Further Reading. Chapter 16: Development: An Overview. 16.1 Growth, Differentiation, and Development. 16.2 Meristems are Centers of Plant Growth. 16.3 Seed Development and Germination. 16.4 From Embryo to Adult. 16.5 Senescence and Programmed Cell Death are the Final Stages of Development. Summary. Chapter Review. Further Reading. Chapter 17: Growth and Development of Cells. 17.1 Growth of Plant Cells is Complicated by the Presence of a Cell Wall. 17.2 Cell Division. 17.3 Cell Walls and Cell Growth. 17.4 A Continuous Stream of Signals Provides Information that Plant Cells Use of Modify Development. 17.5 Signal Transduction Includes a Diverse Array of Second Messengers. 17.6 There is Extensive Crosstalk Among Signal Pathways. Summary. Chapter Review. Further Reading. Chapter 18: Hormones I: Auxins. 18.1 The Hormone Concept in Plants. 18.2 Auxin is Distributed Throughout the Plant. 18.3 The Principal Auxin in Plants is Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA). 18.4 IAA is Synthesized from the Amino Acid I-Tryptophan. 18.5 Some Plants do not Require Tryptophan for IAA Biosynthesis. 18.6 IAA may be Stored as Inactive Conjugates. 18.7 IAA is Deactivated by Oxidation and Conjugation with Amino Acids. 18.8 Auxin is Involved in Virtually Every Stage of Plant Development. 18.9 The Acid-Growth Hypothesis Explains Auxin Control of Cell Enlargement. 18.10 Maintenance of Auxin-Induced Growth and Other Auxin Effects Requires Gene Activation. 18.11 Many Aspects of Plant Development are Linked to the Polar Transport of Auxin. Summary. Chapter Review. Further Reading. Chapter 19: Hormones II: Gibberellins. 19.1 There are a Large Number of Gibberellins. 19.2 There are Three Principal Sites for Gibberellin Biosynthesis. 19.3 Gibberellins are Terpenes, Sharing a Core Pathway with Several Other Hormones and a Wide Range of Secondary Products. 19.4 Gibberellins are Synthesized from Geranylgeranyl Pyrophosphate (GGPP). 19.5 Gibberellins are Deactivated by 2I^2-Hydroxylation. 19.6 Growth Retardants Block the Synthesis of Gibberellins. 19.7 Gibberellin Transport is Poorly Understood. 19.8 Gibberellins Affect Many Aspects of Plant Growth and Development. 19.9 Gibberellins Act by Regulating Gene Expression. Summary. Chapter Review. Further Reading. Chapter 20: Hormones III: Cytokinins. 20.1 Cytokinins are Adenine Derivatives. 20.2 Cytokinins are Synthesized Primarily in the Root and Translocated in the Xylem. 20.3 Cytokinins are Required for Cell Proliferation. 20.4 Cytokinin Receptor and Signaling. Summary. Chapter Review Further Reading. Chapter 21: Hormones IV: Abscisic Acid, Ethylene, and Brassinosteroids. 21.1 Abscisic Acid. 21.2 Ethylene. 21.3 Brassinosteroids. Summary. Chapter Review. Further Reading. Chapter 22: Photomorphogenesis: Responding to Light. 22.1 Photomorphogenesis is Initiated by Photoreceptors. 22.2 Photochromes: Responding to Red and Far-Red Light. 22.3 Cryptochrome: Responding to Blue and UV-A Light. 22.4 Photochrome and Cryptochrome Mediate Numerous Developmental Responses. 22.5 Chemistry and Mode of Action of Phytochrome and Cryptochrome. 22.6 Some Plant Responses are Regulated by UV-B Light. 22.7 De-Etiolation in Arabidopsis: A Case Study in Photoreceptor Interactions. Summary. Chapter Review. Further Reading. Chapter 23: Tropisms and Nastic Movements: Orienting Plants in Space. 23.1 Phototropism: Reaching for the Sun. 23.2 Gravitropism. 23.3 Nastic Movements. Summary. Chapter Review. Further Reading. Chapter 24: Measuring Time: Controlling Development by Photoperiod and Endogenous Clocks. 24.1 Photoperiodism. 24.2 The Biological Clock. 24.3 Photoperiodism in Nature. Summary. Chapter Review. Further Reading. Chapter 25: Flowering and Fruit Development. 25.1 Flower Initiation and Development Involves the Sequential Action of Three Sets of Genes. 25.2 Temperature can Alter the Flowering Response to Photoperiod. 25.3 Fruit Set and Development is Regulated by Hormones. Summary. Chapter Review. Further Reading. Chapter 26: Temperature: Plant Development and Distribution. 26.1 Temperature in the Plant Environment. 26.2 Bud Dormancy. 26.3 Seed Dormancy. 26.4 Thermoperiodism is a Response to Alternating Temperature. 26.5 Temperature Influences Plant Distribution. Summary. Chapter Review. Further Reading. Chapter 27: Secondary Metabolites. 27.1 Secondary Metabolites: A.K.A Natural Products. 27.2 Terpenes. 27.3 Glycosides. 27.4 Phenylpropanoids. 27.5 Secondary Metabolites are Active Against Insects and Disease. 27.6 Jasmonates are Linked to Ubiquitin-Related Protein Degradation. 27.7 Alkaloids. Appendix: Building Blocks: Lipids, Proteins, and Carbohydrates. 1.1 Lipids. 1.2 Proteins. 1.3 Carbohydrates. Index/Glossary.
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4th Revised edition
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