Introduction to Soil Chemistry: Analysis and Instrumentation (Chemical Analysis: A Series of Monographs on Analytical Chemistry and Its Applications 2

Introduction to Soil Chemistry: Analysis and Instrumentation (Chemical Analysis: A Series of Monographs on Analytical Chemistry and Its Applications 2

By: Alfred R. Conklin (author), Mark F. Vitha (series_editor)Hardback

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Description

Provides the tools needed to explore the incredible complexities of the earth's soils Now in its Second Edition, this highly acclaimed text fully equips readers with the skills and knowledge needed to analyze soil and correctly interpret the results. Due to the highly complex nature of soil, the author carefully explains why unusual results are routinely obtained during soil analyses, including the occurrence of methane in soil under oxidative conditions. The text also assists readers in developing their own analytical techniques in order to analyze particular samples or test for particular compounds or properties. The Second Edition of Introduction to Soil Chemistry features four new chapters. Moreover, the entire text has been thoroughly updated and revised. It begins with a review of the history of soil chemistry, introducing fundamental concepts that apply to all soils. Next, the text explores: * Basic soil characteristics, horizonation, texture, clay, air, water, solids, organic matter, organisms, and fundamental chemical concepts essential to soil chemistry * Tested and proven sampling techniques for soil analysis that provide reliable analytical results * Basic soil measurement techniques and extraction procedures * Instrumentation to isolate and identify soil chemicals, including plant nutrients and contaminants Detailed examples and figures throughout the text help readers successfully perform soil sampling and analytical methods as well as better understand soil's chemical characteristics. At the end of each chapter, a bibliography and list of references lead to additional resources to explore individual topics in greater depth. Each chapter also offers problem sets, encouraging readers to put their newfound skills into practice. Reflecting the latest research findings and best practices, the Second Edition of Introduction to Soil Chemistry is ideal for both students and soil chemists who want to explore the incredible complexities of the earth's soils.

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About Author

ALFRED R. CONKLIN JR., PhD, is Professor of Agriculture and Soil at Wilmington College, where he teaches soil science, organic chemistry, and chemistry and the environment. He is also the International Director of the International Undergraduate Research Symposium. The recipient of three Fulbright Awards, Dr. Conklin has more than four decades of experience extracting and analyzing soil samples from Africa, Asia, and North and South America.

Contents

PREFACE xi INSTRUMENTAL METHOD ACRONYMS xiv COMMON HYPHENATED INSTRUMENTAL METHOD ABBREVIATIONS xv ABBREVIATED PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS xvi CHAPTER 1 SUMMARY OF THE HISTORY OF SOIL CHEMISTRY 1 1.1 The 19th Century 3 1.2 The End of the 19th and the Beginning of the 20th Century 8 1.3 The 20th Century 11 1.4 The End of the 20th and the Beginning of the 21st Century 14 1.5 Conclusion 15 Problems 15 References 16 Bibliography 18 CHAPTER 2 SOIL BASICS PART I: LARGE FEATURES 19 2.1. Horizonation 28 2.2 Peds 33 2.3 Soil Color 36 2.4 Soil Naming 38 2.5 The Landscape 39 2.6 Relationship of Large Features to Soil Chemistry, Soil Analysis, and Instrumentation 40 2.7 Conclusions 42 Problems 42 References 43 Bibliography 43 CHAPTER 3 SOIL BASICS PART II: MICROSCOPIC TO ATOMIC ORBITAL DESCRIPTION OF SOIL CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS 44 Soil Components Independent 45 3.1 Soil Solids 45 Soil Components Interacting 53 3.2. Bonding Considerations 53 Soil Components in Combination 58 3.3 Surface Features 58 3.4 Energy Considerations 60 3.5 Reaction Paths 61 3.6 Steric Factors 62 3.7 Rate Factors 62 3.8 All Factored Together 63 3.9 Micelles 63 3.10 Coated Surfaces 63 3.11 Conclusions 65 Problems 65 References 66 Bibliography 67 CHAPTER 4 SOIL BASICS PART III: THE BIOLOGICAL AND ORGANIC COMPONENTS IN SOIL 68 Biota of Soil 69 4.1 Animals 69 4.2 Plants 71 4.3 Microorganisms 75 Biological and Organic Chemicals of Soil 79 4.4 Biochemical 79 4.5 Bioorganic 81 4.6 Organic Compounds 81 4.7 Analysis 87 4.8 Conclusions 89 Problems 90 References 90 Bibliography 92 Web Sites 92 CHAPTER 5 SOIL BASICS PART IV: THE SOIL AIR AND SOIL SOLUTION 93 5.1 Soil Air 94 5.2 Water 95 5.3 Solubility 98 5.4 Elements in Solution 99 5.5 Dissolved Gases 99 5.6 Compounds in Solution 100 5.7 Inorganic Ions in Solution 102 5.8 Organic Ions in Solution 104 5.9 Soil pH 105 5.10 The Soil Solution around Particles 106 5.11 Distribution between Soil Solids and Soil Solution 106 5.12 Oxidative and Reductive Reactions in the Soil Solution 108 5.13 Measuring Soil Water 109 5.14 Conclusion 112 Problems 112 References 113 Bibliography 114 CHAPTER 6 SPECIATION 115 6.1 Cations 118 6.2 Anions 123 6.3 Isolation of Species 128 6.4 Sampling, Sample Storage, and Speciation 129 6.5 Conclusions 130 Problems 131 References 131 Bibliography 134 CHAPTER 7 SOIL AND SOIL SOLUTION SAMPLING, SAMPLE TRANSPORT, AND STORAGE 135 7.1 Field Sampling 136 7.2 Sampling Cropped Land 147 7.3 Environmental Sampling 148 7.4 Other Environmental Sampling Situations 148 7.5 Sample Transport and Storage 148 7.6 Laboratory Sampling 149 7.7 Sampling the Soil Solution 153 7.8 Conclusions 155 Problems 156 References 157 Bibliography 158 CHAPTER 8 DIRECT AND INDIRECT MEASUREMENT IN SOIL ANALYSIS 159 8.1 Direct Measurements 160 8.2 Mediated Direct Measurement 166 8.3 Indirect Soil Measurements 168 8.4 Destructive Soil Analysis Methods 170 8.5 Soil Solution 171 8.6 Soil Solids 171 8.7 Conclusions 172 Problems 173 References 173 Bibliography 174 CHAPTER 9 ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS 175 9.1 The Basic Electrochemical Cell 177 9.2 Electricity Generation in Soil 177 9.3 Potentiometry (Electrodes in Soil Measurements) 178 9.4 Voltammetry 187 9.5 Electrical Conductivity 187 9.6 Time-Domain Reflectometry 188 9.7 Porous Block 189 9.8 Other Methods 189 9.9 Conclusions 189 Problems 190 References 190 Bibliography 192 CHAPTER 10 TITRIMETRIC MEASUREMENTS 193 10.1 Soil Titration 195 10.2 Titration of Soil pH 197 10.3 Organic Matter 200 10.4 Ammonia 200 10.5 Kjeldahl: Organic Nitrogen 202 10.6 Nitrite and Nitrate 203 10.7 Carbonate Determination 204 10.8 Halogen Ion Determination 205 10.9 pH Stat Titrations 206 10.10 Conclusions 207 Problems 207 References 208 CHAPTER 11 EXTRACTION OF INORGANICS 209 11.1 Extraction Equipment 210 11.2 Water as a Soil Extractant 211 11.3 Acid Extractants 218 11.4 Extractants for Basic Soils 222 11.5 Microwave-Assisted Extraction 224 11.6 Ultrasonic Extraction 225 11.7 Sequential Extraction 225 11.8 Ion Exchange Resin Extractions 226 11.9 Surfactants 227 11.10 Conclusion 227 Problems 227 References 228 Bibliography 230 CHAPTER 12 EXTRACTION OF ORGANICS 231 12.1 Sampling Handling before Extraction 235 12.2 Extraction Equipment 235 12.3 Soil Organic Matter Extraction Solvents 243 12.4 Cleanup 247 12.5 Conclusion 250 Problems 250 References 251 Bibliography 252 CHAPTER 13 CHROMATOGRAPHY 254 13.1 Fundamentals of Chromatography 256 13.2 Gas Chromatography 257 13.3 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography 264 13.4 Thin-Layer Chromatography 265 13.5 Electrophoresis 267 13.6 Identification of Compounds Separated by Chromatographic Procedures 268 13.7 Quantification 270 13.8 Conclusion 271 Problems 271 References 272 Bibliography 273 CHAPTER 14 SPECTROSCOPY AND SPECTROMETRY 274 14.1 Spectral Overlap 275 14.2 Noise 276 14.3 The Visible Region 277 14.4 Ultraviolet Region 278 14.5 Infrared Spectroscopy 280 14.6 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 286 14.7 Mass Spectrometry 287 14.8 Atomic Spectroscopy 288 14.9 Color Measurement: The Spectrophotometer 292 14.10 Regression Analysis 296 14.11 Relationship to the Original Sample 296 14.12 X-ray Diffraction 297 14.13 X-ray Fluorescence 297 14.14 Remote Sensing 299 14.15 Conclusion 299 Problems 300 References 300 Bibliography 303 CHAPTER 15 HYPHENATED METHODS IN SOIL ANALYSIS 304 15.1 Sample Preparation 307 15.2 Sample Destroyed 307 15.3 Nondestructive Methods 313 15.4 Triple Hyphenated Methods 314 15.5 Conclusions 316 Problems 316 References 317 Bibliography 318 INDEX 320

Product Details

  • publication date: 25/03/2014
  • ISBN13: 9781118135143
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 376
  • ID: 9781118135143
  • weight: 644
  • ISBN10: 1118135148
  • edition: 2nd Revised edition

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