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Over the past 25 years the field of neutron diffraction for residual stress characterization has grown tremendously, and has matured from the stage of trial demonstrations to provide a practical tool with widespread applications in materials science and engineering. While the literature on the subject has grown commensurately, it has also remained fragmented and scattered across various journals and conference proceedings. For the first time, this volume presents a comprehensive introduction to stress measurement using neutron diffraction. It discusses all aspects of the technique, from the basic physics, the different neutron sources and instrumentation, to the various strategies for lattice strain measurement and data interpretation. These are illustrated by practical examples. This book represents a coherent unified treatment of the subject, written by well-known experts. It will prepare students, engineers, and other newcomers for their first neutron diffraction experiments and provide experts with a definitive reference work.
INTRODUCTION Residual Stress: Friend or Foe? Historical Development of Stress Measurement by Diffraction Special Characteristics of Neutron Strain Measurement Nature and Origin of Residual Stress Effects of Residual Stress FUNDAMENTALS OF NEUTRON DIFFRACTION Introduction Scattering and Absorption of Neutrons and X-Rays by Atoms Neutron Diffraction from Crystalline Solids Penetration of Neutron Beams Effects of Lattice Vibrations Extinction, Texture, and Multiple Scattering DIFFRACTION TECHNIQUES AND INSTRUMENT DESIGN Neutron Sources Diffractometers for Strain Measurement Neutron Detectors The Instrumental Resolution Instrument Gauge Volumes Sampled Gauge Volume and Effective Measurement Position Specialized Instruments for Strain Measurement PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF STRAIN MEASUREMENT USING NEUTRON DIFFRACTION Introduction Measurement of Diffraction Bragg Peak Profile Analyzing Bragg Peak Profiles Accuracy of Diffraction Peak Center Determination Analysis of Complete Diffraction Profiles for Strain Strain-Free Reference Reproducibility Tests INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS OF LATTICE STRAIN DATA Inferring Stresses from Lattice Strains Introduction to Mechanics of Crystallite Deformation Elastic Anisotropy of Single Crystals The Bulk Elastic Response of Polycrystals hkl-Specific Response in a Polycrystal Undergoing Elastic Deformation hkl-Specific Response in a Polycrystal Undergoing Plastic Deformation APPLICATIONS TO PROBLEMS IN MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING Introduction Welded Structures Composites and Other Multiphase Materials Plastically Deformed Components and Materials Near-Surface Stresses In Situ and Through-Process or Life Studies THE FUTURE SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS GLOSSARY APPENDICES Note on Reactor Flux Spectrum Relation between the Centroid of Sampled Gauge Volume and Translator Reading Points for Consideration When Making a Neutron Diffraction Stress Measurement Macroscopic Scattering Cross-Sections of All Elements Index
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