Food chemistry is the study of the underlying properties of foods and food ingredients. It seeks to understand how chemical systems behave in order to better control them to improve the nutritional value, safety, and culinary presentation of food. John W. Brady's comprehensive full-color textbook provides a key resource for students of the field.
Designed for undergraduate and beginning graduate level courses, Introductory Food Chemistry explores traditional topics that students need to understand if they are to pursue careers in food in either academia or industry as well as many new and current topics not covered in other textbooks. These topics include mad cow disease, foods contaminated with melamine, acrylamide in baked foods, wine chemistry, allergens, genetically modified foods, as well as current understanding of dietary cholesterol, high fructose corn syrups, and artificial sweeteners.
Authored by one of the leading scholars in the field, Introductory Food Chemistry deploys the most current understanding of the relationship between molecular structure and function for food proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. The book also makes critical use of color figures that illustrate food transformations visually in three dimensions rather than relying on dry equations alone.
John W. Brady is Professor in the Department of Food Science at Cornell University, where he has taught introductory food chemistry courses for over twenty years. He is coeditor of Computer Modeling of Carbohydrate Molecules and Modelling Molecular Structure and Reactivity in Biological Systems. He has also served on the editorial boards of Food Biophysics, Chemical Design Automation News, and Biopolymers.
Preface 1. Food Chemistry: An Introduction What Is Food Chemistry? Basic Review Atoms and Molecules Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Phosphorous Halogens Transition Metals Review of Thermodynamics The First Law of Thermodynamics Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics Suggested Reading 2. Water in Foods Physical Properties of Water Molecular Structure and Hydrogen Bonding Hydrogen Bonds Types of Hydrogen Bonds in Biological and Food Molecules Hydrogen Bonds in Water: Ice and Liquid Water Aqueous Solutions Solutions with Multiple Solutes: The Hofmeister Series Solutions of Gases in Liquids: Carbonated Beverages Water Activity and Mobility Food Glasses Freezing and Freeze-Drying Ice Nucleation and Growth Suggested Reading 3. Dispersed Systems: Food Colloids Colloids and Types of Dispersions Gels Emulsions The Importance of Surface Area The Thermodynamics of Surfaces The "Mentos Eruption" Curved Surfaces, the Kelvin Equation, and Ostwald Ripening Antifreeze Proteins and Ice Nucleating Proteins Adsorption at Liquid Surfaces Adsorption at Solid Surfaces Hysteresis in Moisture Sorption Isotherms Producing Emulsions HLB Numbers Emulsion Stability Solvation Forces DLVO Theory Steric Stabilization Effects of Dissolved Polymers on Emulsion Stability Sedimentation and Creaming Foams Suggested Reading 4. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates in Foods Carbohydrate Structures The D-Aldoses The D-Ketoses Systematic Nomenclature Carbohydrate Rings The Relationship between D- and L-Sugars Tautomerization Sugar Derivatives Reactions of Carbohydrates Acid-Catalyzed Reactions Reactions under Basic Conditions Non-Oxidative Browning Functional Properties Sweetness Water Binding and Solubility Polysaccharides Homopolymers Heteropolymers Suggested Reading 5. Proteins Proteins in Foods Polypeptide Chains Amino Acids Amino Acid Configurations and Taste; MSG Aspartame Tryptophan and Serotonin Protein Conformations Protein Folding Ramachandran Maps Secondary Structures Prolines Folding of Globular Proteins The Chain Configurational Entropy Contribution to the Free Energy of Folding Tertiary Structure of Globular Proteins Milk Proteins Whey Proteins Caseins: Random Coil-Like Chains Sweet-Tasting Proteins Botulinum Toxin Legume Proteins Soy Proteins Peanut Allergies Zein Proteins Egg White Proteins: Albumen Egg Yolk Proteins: Lipoproteins Meat Proteins Mad Cow Disease Reactions of Proteins Acid Hydrolysis Racemization and Cross Linking Reactions with Nitrites Methionine Oxidation The Kjeldahl Method Maillard Reactions Reactions with Aldehydes Ionizing Radiation Acylation Homocysteine Aspartame Degradation Heterocyclic Amine Formation GMO Foods: "Frankenfoods" Suggested Reading 6. Enzymes in Foods Enzymes in Foods Enzyme Kinetics Enzyme Thermodynamics: The Production of High-Fructose Corn Syrups Proteases Endopeptidases Exopeptidases Glycosidases and Other Enzymes with Carbohydrate Substrates Amylases Pectic Enzymes Lactases Lipases Foaming in Beer Enzymatic Browning: Polyphenol Oxidases Suggested Reading 7. Lipids Fats in Foods Fatty Acids Omega-3 Fatty Acids Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Glycerol and Triacylglycerols (Triglycerides) Diglycerides and Monoglycerides Stereospecific Numbering Phospholipids Waxes Cholesterol and Phytosterols Reduced-Calorie Synthetic Fat Substitutes Synthetic Fat Replacers Fat Compositions Animal Fats Dairy Fats Oils from Plants Reactions of Lipids Fractionation Interesterification Saponification Hydrogenation of Vegetable Oils Bromination and Brominated Vegetable Oil (BVO) Lipid Oxidation Frying Smoke Points Fat Crystallization Crystal Phases Chocolate Three-Component Phase Diagrams Suggested Reading 8. Flavors Taste and Odor Perception Sweeteners Nutritive Sweeteners Nonnutritive Sweeteners Nonsweet (Savory) Flavors and Odors Volatile Sulfides and Mercaptans: Onions and Garlic Aldehydes, Esters, and Ketones Essential Oils Phenolics and Polyphenolics Ethylene, Carrots, and Isocoumarin Pyrazines and Methoxypyrazines "Foxy" Grape Aromas Hot (Spicy) Tastes Bitter Flavors Protein Decomposition Products Suggested Reading 9. Food Colors The Importance of Food Colors Visible Light and Color Natural Colors in Foods Tetrapyrrole Pigments Heme Compounds and Meat Chlorophyll Carotenoids Provitamin A Activity of Carotenoids Flavonoids Anthocyanins Polyphenolic Flavonoid Antioxidants Flavanols Flavanones, Flavones, Flavonols, and Isoflavonols Resveratrol Tannins Polyphenolic Chemistry in Wines Betalains Cochineal Colorants Titanium Dioxide Synthetic Colors Suggested Reading 10. Food Additives Food Additives and the Law Acids Chelating Agents Antioxidants Antimicrobial Agents Epoxides Antibiotics Anticaking Agents Chemical Leavening Agents Confectioner's Glaze Polydextrose Suggested Reading 11. Food Toxicology Toxicity and Dose Chinese Restaurant Syndrome Toxins in Foods Industrial Pollutants Naturally Occurring Toxins Mycotoxins Suggested Reading 12. Vitamins What Are Vitamins? Fat-Soluble Vitamins Vitamin A Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K Water-Soluble Vitamins B Vitamins Vitamin C Suggested Reading Bibliography Index