This new edition of
Invasion Ecology provides a comprehensive and updated introduction to all aspects of biological invasion by non-native species. Highlighting important research findings associated with each stage of invasion, the book provides an overview of the invasion process from transportation patterns and causes of establishment success to ecological impacts, invader management, and post-invasion evolution. The authors have produced new chapters on predicting and preventing invasion, managing and eradicating invasive species, and invasion dynamics in a changing climate.
Modern global trade and travel have led to unprecedented movement of non-native species by humans with unforeseen, interesting, and occasionally devastating consequences. Increasing recognition of the problems associated with invasion has led to a rapid growth in research into the dynamics of non-native species and their adverse effects on native biota and human economies. This book provides a synthesis of this fast growing field of research and is an essential text for undergraduate and graduate students in ecology and conservation management.
Additional resources are available at www.wiley.com/go/invasionecology
Julie L. Lockwood is a Professor at Rutgers University. Her research interests include conservation biology, population biology, and biological invasions. Martha F. Hoopes is an Associate Professor at Mount Holyoke College. She has worked primarily with plants and insects on questions of spatial community dynamics and invasions. Michael P. Marchetti is the Fletcher Jones Professor of Ecology at St. Mary s College of California. He is an aquatic ecologist who primarily studies community and landscape aspects of freshwater invaders in the western U.S.
Preface ix 1 An Introduction to Invasion Ecology 1 What are invaders and why do we care about them? 2 A brief history of invasion ecology 5 The wicked terminological web we weave 7 The invasion process 13 Summary 18 2 Transport Vectors and Pathways 24 What s the difference between a vector and a pathway? 25 Does human-mediated dispersal differ from natural dispersal? 26 Transport vectors 29 Which species are transported via what vector group? 41 Dynamics of transport pathways 44 Summary 48 3 Trends in Numbers of Invaders 50 Invasion rates through time 51 Geographic patterns in numbers of invaders 63 Summary 72 4 Propagules 74 What are propagules? 75 Donor region and propagule pressure 75 Biological mechanisms 79 Empirical evidence 85 The hidden influence of propagule pressure 92 Summary 97 5 Disturbance 99 History and definition of disturbance 100 Disturbance facilitates invasion? 104 Restoration and disturbance 112 Agriculture and urbanization as disturbance 115 Biotic disturbance 118 Summary 127 6 Establishment Success: The Influence of Biotic Interactions 129 Conceptual issues 130 Resistance to invasion 131 Facilitation of establishment 146 Summary 155 7 Modeling the Geographical Spread of Invasive Species 157 What exactly is geographical spread? 158 Why do we want to model geographical spread? 162 The reaction diffusion model 163 Long-distance dispersal 170 Directional dispersal 173 Stratified dispersal 176 Other forms of heterogeneity 182 Summary 187 8 Ecological Processes and the Spread of Non-native Species 189 Population growth 190 Dispersal 194 Biotic interactions 202 The role of heterogeneity 207 Lag times 210 Boom and bust 215 Summary 216 9 Ecological Impacts of Invasive Species 218 Genetic impacts 219 Individual impacts 222 Population impacts 228 Community impacts 233 Ecosystem impacts 240 Landscape, regional, and global impacts 242 Summary 244 10 Impact Synthesis 246 Perception and recognition of impact 247 Integrating perception with ecological determinants of impact 255 A theory of impact? 258 Finding common currencies 263 A cross-stage impact formula 273 Summary 275 11 Evolution of Invaders 277 Founding process 279 Losses and gains in genetic variability via transport mechanisms 279 Genetics and post-release success 288 Local adaptation and life-history evolution 291 Evolution of native species in response to non-natives 296 Summary 298 12 Predicting and Preventing Invasion 299 Explanation versus risk assessment 301 Inherent limitations to prediction 301 Risk analysis 303 Screening risky species 304 Screening risky transportation vectors 317 Summary 333 13 Eradication and Control of Invaders 335 Cause for optimism? 336 Rapid response 337 Lazarus effect 343 Long-term control 346 Sisyphus effect 350 Summary 354 14 Global Climate Change and Invasive Species 356 Global climate change 101 357 Non-native species and global climate change 364 Transport 365 Establishment 368 Spread 373 Impact 379 Human responses 387 Summary 391 References 393 Index 428 A colour plate section falls between pages 372 and 373