On September 6, 1995, Dudley George was shot by Ontario Provincial Police officer Kenneth Deane. He died shortly after midnight the next day. George had been participating in a protest over land claims in Ipperwash Provincial Park, which had been expropriated from the native Ojibwe after the Second World War. A confrontation erupted between members of the Stoney Point and Kettle Point Bands and officers of the OPP's Emergency Response Team, which had been instructed to use necessary force to disband the protest by Premier Mike Harris's government. George's death and the grievous mishandling of the protest led to the 2007 Ipperwash Inquiry. Edward J. Hedican's Ipperwash provides an incisive examination of protest and dissent within the context of land claims disputes and Aboriginal rights. Hedican investigates how racism and government practices have affected Aboriginal resistance to policies, especially those that have resulted in the loss of Aboriginal lands and led to persistent socio-economic problems in Native communities.
He offers a number of specific solutions and policy recommendations on how Aboriginal protests can be resolved using mediation and dispute management - instead of the coercive force used in Ipperwash Park that ultimately gave this tragic story such infamy.
Edward J. Hedican is Professor of Anthropology at the University of Guelph. He has been teaching and researching anthropology for over 30 years and is the author of several books, including Ipperwash: The Tragic Failure of Canada's Aboriginal Policy (2013) and Applied Anthropology in Canada: Understanding Aboriginal Issues (2008).
Preface 1. Introduction * Ipperwash as a Case Study; Dissent and Society * The So-Called 'Indian Problem' * Research on Aboriginal Policy; Legal, Cultural, and Social Variability * Modern Aboriginal Conditions * The Scope of the Book 2. Aboriginal Policy in Canada * The Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (1996) * Nunavut: A New Land, A New Deal (1999) * Ipperwash Inquiry (1995-2007; Canada Votes against UN Aboriginal Rights Declaration (2007) * Prime Minister Harper's Apology (2008) * Aboriginal Leader's Reactions * Urban Aboriginal Strategy (1997-2012) * Assessing Canada's Aboriginal Policy * Conclusion 3. The Nature of Aboriginal Rights * The Context of Aboriginal Claims * The Concept of Aboriginal Rights * Treaties and Land Surrenders * Aboriginal Claims Policy * The Courts and Aboriginal Claims * Conclusion 4. The Politics of Resistance and Confrontation * Contested Ground: The Nature of Resistance * The Ojibway Warrior Society, Kenora, Ontario (1974) * The Teme-Augama Anishnabai Logging Blockade (1988) * The Innu and the Goose Bay Air Base Occupation (1988) * The Lubicon Lake Cree Confrontation (1988) * The Mohawk Warrior Society, Oka, Quebec (1990) * First Nations Policing Policy (1992) * The Gustafsen Lake Standoff (1995) * The Burnt Church Fishing Dispute (2002) * Caledonia and the Grand River Land Dispute (2006) * Grassy Narrows: Mercury Poisoning and Forest Management Protest (2006) * The Akwesasne Border Confrontation (2009) * Patterns of Resistance: Comparative Perspectives * Aboriginal-Police Relations: Resistance and Reconciliation * Conclusion 5. The Ipperwash confrontation * Aboriginal Origins in Ontario * Kettle and Stony Point First Nations * Land Cessions * The Occupation of Ipperwash Park * The Ontario Government's Response * Racial and Culturally Intolerant Attitudes * The Shooting of Dudley George * The OPP Response * A Framework for Police Preparedness * Chiefs of Ontario Response to the Framework * Did the OPP Forget the Lessons of Ipperwash? * Amnesty International is Watching * Ipperwash Inquiry Backlash * Ipperwash and the Media * Conclusion 6. Ipperwash Inquiry Recommendations * Ipperwash Inquiry Recommendations * Policing Aboriginal Protests and Occupations * Facilitating Negotiations * Project Maple: Crisis Negotiation * Redressive Action * Treaty Commission of Ontario * Wider Considerations of the Ipperwash Inquiry * Update: Return of Land and Settlements * Conclusion 7. Ipperwash as Racial Oppression * Anti-Native Prejudice * Understanding Racial Oppression * The Violent Suppression of Aboriginal Protests * Policy Recommendations Concerning Aboriginal Protests * Aboriginal Policy as an Exercise of Choice? * The Systemic Nature of Racial Oppression * Conclusion 8. Institutional Racism in Canada * The Characteristics of Institutional Racism * The Media * The Police * The State * A Policy of Respect, Justice and Tolerance * Summary of Aboriginal Issues * Concluding Remarks on Aboriginal Protests and Resistance NOTES References Appendix Index