By: Erika Rosenberg (author), Gregory Feist (author)Paperback

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Contents Foreword by Paul Ekman xxi Preface xxii 1 Introduction to Psychology 2 What Is Psychology? 5 Psychology Defined 5 Why Should You Study Psychology? 6 Psychology in the Real World: Why Psychology Is Important to My Life 7 Subdisciplines of Psychology 8 The Origins of Psychology 11 A Brief History of the Practice of Clinical Psychology 11 A Brief History of Scientific Psychology 14 Psychological Perspectives: Explaining Human Behavior 20 Psychoanalytic-Psychodynamic 00 Behaviorism-Learning 00 Humanistic-Positive 00 Cognitive 00 Sociocultural/Cross-Cultural 00 Neuropsychological-Behavioral Genetic 00 Evolutionary 00 The Nature-Nurture Debate 20 The Evolution of Human Behavior 22 No One Perspective Tells the Whole Story in Psychology 26 Challenging Assumptions and Not Believing Everything You Think-The Art of Critical Thinking 26 Connections within and between Chapters 27 Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in Psychology 28 Chapter Review 30 2 Conducting Research in Psychology 32 The Nature of Science 35 Common Sense and Logic 35 The Limits of Observation 35 What Is Science? 36 The Scientific Method 38 Research Process 39 What Science Is Not: Pseudoscience 40 Research Designs in Psychology 41 Principles of Research Design 41 Descriptive Studies 42 Correlational Studies 47 Experimental Studies 49 Longitudinal Studies xx Twin-Adoption Studies xx Meta-Analysis xx Big Data xx Challenging Assumptions in the Objectivity of Experimental Research 53 Commonly Used Measures of Psychological Research 54 Self-Report Measures 54 Behavioral Measures 56 Physiological Measures 57 Making Sense of Data with Statistics 57 Descriptive Statistics 58 Inferential Statistics 59 Psychology in the Real World: Challenge the Assumptions of Advertisers' Statistics 60 Research Ethics 62 Scientific Misconduct xx Ethical Treatment of Human Participants 62 Ethical Treatment of Animals 64 Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in Psychological Research 66 Chapter Review 67 3 The Biology of Behavior 70 Genes and Behavior 73 Principles of Behavioral Genetics xx The Connection between Genes and Behavior is Complex 74 The Relative Effects of Genes and Environment Can Be Teased Apart xx The Environment Can Change Gene Expression: Epigenetics xx The Nervous System 78 Organization of the Nervous System 78 The Cells of the Nervous System: Glial Cells and Neurons 79 Common Neurotransmitters 85 Summary of the Steps in Neural Transmission 89 The Brain 90 Evolution of the Human Brain 90 Overview of Brain Regions 92 Psychology in the Real World: Neuroprosthetics: Thought Control of Artificial Limbs 99 Brain Plasticity and Neurogenesis 100 Challenging Assumptions about Neural Growth in the Adult Brain 104 Early Evidence of Neurogenesis in Adults 104 Key Figures in the Discovery of Neural Growth in Adults 104 Measuring the Brain 106 Electroencephalography 106 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Functional MRI (fMRI) 106 Positron Emission Tomography (PET) 107 Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) xxx Near Infrared Spectrometry (NIRS) xxx Research Process 108 The Endocrine System 109 Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in the Biology of Behavior 111 Chapter Review 113 4 Sensing and Perceiving Our World 116 The Long, Strange Trip from Sensation to Perception 119 Basic Sensory Processes 119 Principles of Perception 119 Vision 123 Sensing Visual Stimuli 123 Perceiving Visual Stimuli 130 Hearing 140 The Physics of Sound and the Psychophysics of Hearing 140 The Ear 142 Psychology in the Real World: Hearing Loss Can Happen in Young People Too 143 Hearing in the Brain 143 The Bodily Senses 144 Touch 145 Pain 145 The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste 148 Smell (Olfaction) 148 Taste 149 Synesthesia 151 Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in Sensation and Perception 152 Research Process 154 Chapter Review 156 5 Human Development 158 The Developing Fetus 161 Stages of Prenatal Development 161 Brain and Sensory Development before Birth 162 Nature and Nurture Influences on Fetal Development 165 Prenatal Personality Development 166 The Developing Infant and Child 167 Physical Development in Infancy and Childhood 167 Early Cognitive Development 171 Psychology in the Real World: Musical Training Changes the Brain 172 Development of Moral Reasoning 178 Early Socioemotional Development 181 Research Process 179 The Developing Adolescent 187 Physical Development in Adolescence 188 Cognitive and Brain Development in Adolescence 188 Social Development in Adolescence 191 Personality Development in Adolescence xxx The Developing Adult 193 Early Adulthood 193 Middle Adulthood 197 Late Adulthood 198 Death and Dying 201 Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in Human Development 202 6 Consciousness 208 What Is Consciousness? 210 Theories of Consciousness xxx Two Dimensions of Consciousness: Wakefulness and Awareness 211 Minimal Consciousness xxx Moderate Consciousness 213 Full Consciousness 213 Attention: Focusing Consciousness 214 Selective Attention 214 Psychology in the Real World: The Hazards of Distracted Driving 218 Sustained Attention 216 Multitasking: The Implications of Shifting Attention 217 Training Consciousness: Meditation 220 Meditation and Conscious Experience 221 Meditation Training and the Brain 221 Sleeping and Dreaming 222 Sleeping 222 Research Process 223 Dreaming 231 Hypnosis 233 Altering Consciousness with Drugs 236 Depressants 236 Stimulants 240 Hallucinogens 242 Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in Consciousness 245 Chapter Review 246 7 Memory 248 Forming Memories 251 Four Steps in Forming Memories xxx Aids to Memory Formation xxx Impediments to Memory Formation xxx Types of Memory xxx Three Major Types of Memory xxx Memory and the Brain xxx Neuroplasticity and Memory xxx Psychology in the Real World: Manipulating Memory with Drugs and Drinks 266 Brain Regions Most Involved in Memory xxx Challenging Assumptions in Brain Stimulation and Memory 268 Research Process 270 Malleability of Memory xxx Reconsolidation xxx Selective and Divided Attention xxx Eyewitness Testimony xxx False Memories xxx Recovered Memories xxx Suggestibility and Misinformation xxx Forgetting and Memory Loss xxx Forms of Forgetting 276 Memory Loss Caused by Brain Injury and Disease 279 Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in Memory 280 Chapter Review 282 8 Learning 284 Basic Processe s of Learning 287 Association 287 Conditioning Models of Learning 287 Classical Conditioning 288 Operant Conditioning 292 Challenging Assumptions about Conditioning Models of Learning 301 Psychology in the Real World: Behavior Modification for the Treatment of Attentional Disorders 314 Social Learning Theory 306 How Nature and Nurture Work Together in Learning 310 Imprinting 311 Imitation, Mirror Neurons, and Learning 312 Research Process 313 Synaptic Change during Learning 314

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9781260084191
  • Format: Paperback
  • ID: 9781260084191
  • ISBN10: 1260084191
  • edition: 4th edition

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