Acknowledgements. Abbreviations. Introduction. 1 The Relationship between the Ulama and the State. 2 The Ulama in Qajar Iran and the Coming of the Revolution. 3 Tabataba'i and the Campaign for Reform. 4 The Ulama and the Establishment of the National Conservative Assembly. 5 Constitutionalism and the Law of Islam. 6 Reform and Reaction: September 1907 to June 1908. 7 Shaikh Fazlallah and the Absolutist Cause. Notes. A Note on the Sources. Bibliography. Glossary. Index.