'Islam in Europe' and 'Islamophobia' are subjects of vital global importance which currently preoccupy policy-makers and academics alike. Through the examination of various European Muslim groups and institutions that have branched off from Islamic movements - including the Muslim Brotherhood, Hizb ut-Tahrir and Jama'at-i Islami - this book outlines the configuration of social, political and religious processes that have given rise to new kinds of European Muslim organisations. The authors offer a new perspective on these Muslim groups and seek to reclaim them from the often highly-charged public debates by placing them within the context of their origins as politicised religious movements on the one hand and their ongoing incorporation into European societal structures on the other. They also consider the relationship of these organisations to their 'parent' movements and examine the presence of Islam in European education and higher education institutions.
Taking into account the connection between Islamic movements and the perceived surge of 'Islamophobia' in Europe, this book does not debate the question of whether these groups fit into normative or cultural structures of European nation-states, but rather examines how these structures have changed through their interaction with these groups and the growing Muslim population within Europe. It does not consider political Islam as the antithesis to a refined notion of secularism, but as a form of public religion which contributes to the ever-changing structure of Europe's secular regimes. Featuring the work of more than 40 scholars from around the world, this is the comprehensive guide to Islamic movements in Europe, offering original, definitive perspectives on Muslims and Islam in Europe today. It will be essential reading for policy-makers, political commentators and scholars alike.
Frank Peter is Assistant Professor of Islamic Studies at the University of Berne. Rafael Ortega is Senior Researcher at Casa Arabe's International Institute of Arab and Muslim World Studies.
Part I - Islamic Movements 1. Introduction by Frank Peter 2. The Muslim Brothers. Creation, evolution, and goals for the future by Rafael Ortega Rodrigo 3. Milli Goru? by Jenny White 4. The Jama'at-i Islami by Jan-Peter Hartung 5. Tablighi Jama'at by Dietrich Reetz 6. The Wahhabiya, Saudi Arabia and the Salafist Movement by Guido Steinberg 7. Hizb ut-Tahrir by Suha Taji-Farouki 8. Harakat al-Nahda and Islamic Movements in Tunisia by Lutz Rogler 9. The Moroccan Islamist movement, from "secessionism" to "participation" by Mohamed Darif 10. The Islamic movement in Algeria: three trends, three paths by Mohamed Darif 11. Politics of Islamism by Salman Sayyid Part II - Europe 12. Introduction by Frank Peter II. 1. Groups and Federations II.1.A The European Lineage of the Muslim Brothers 13. The International Organization of the Muslim Brotherhood by Hossam Tamam 14. The Muslim Brotherhood in Spain by Elena Arigita and Rafael Ortega 15. Germany: Islamische Gemeinschaft in Deutschland and Islamische Zentren by Melanie Kamp and Jorn Thielmann 16. Being and Becoming a German Muslim Youth: Muslimische Jugend in Deutschland by Synnove Bendixsen 17. The Union of Islamic Organisations of France by Frank Peter 18. Muslim Association of Britain by Sadeq Hamid 19. The Union of Islamic Communities and Organisations (UCOII) and Related Groups in Italy by Annalisa Frisina 20. The European Council for Fatwa and Research and Yusuf al-Qaradawi by Alexandre Caeiro and Bettina Graf II.1.B Milli Goru? 21. The Milli Goru? Community in Germany (Islamische Gemeinschaft Milli Goru? - IGMG) by Werner Schiffauer 22. The Caliphate State by Werner Schiffauer 23. The Islamic Federation of Belgium (FIB): the Belgian branch of the Milli Goru? movement by Ural Manco 24. Milli Goru? in France by Samim Akgonul 25. Milli Goru? in the Netherlands by Thijil Sunier 26. Milli Goru? in Denmark by Jorgen Bak Simonsen II.1.C Salafist groups 27. Salafi politics in the Netherlands by Martijn de Koning 28. The Salafist groups in France: a plural and antagonistic movement by Samir Amghar 29. The development of Salafi doctrine in Spain by Jordi Moreras and Sol Tarres 30. Salafism in Germany by Jorn Thielmann II.1.D Salafist-jihadist groups 31. Jihadi Movements in the United Kingdom by Yahya Birt and Sadek Hamid 32. Abu Hamza al-Masri and Supporters of Shari'a by Dominique Thomas 33. Al-Muhajirun and Al-Ghuraba' by Dominique Thomas 34. Virtual Jihadist Media by Akil N. Awan II.1.E Tablighi Jama'at 35. Tablighi Jama'at in the UK by Imran Mogra 36. The Tablighi Jama'at in Spain by Sol Tarres 37. Laicite and Piety - The Tablighi Jama'at in France by Dietrich Reetz II.1.F Hizb ut-Tahrir 38. Hizb ut-Tahrir in the United Kingdom by Sadek Hamid 39. Hizb ut-Tahrir al-Islami in Denmark by Jorgen Bak Simonsen II.1.G Muslim Representative Bodies and Other Groups 40. Al-'Adl wa-l-Ihsan in Spain: an emerging actor in the Muslim field by Elena Arigita 41. The Islamic Foundation, United Kingdom by Sean McLoughlin 42. Shaykh Abdalqadir al-Murabit and the Islamic Community in Spain by F. Javier Roson Lorente 43. Suleymanlis in Germany by Gerdien Jonker 44. The Suleymanli Movement in the Netherlands by Thijl Sunier 45. The Muslim Council of Britain: from pious lay-preaching to political lobbying by Mohammad Siddique Seddon 46. German Muslim federations: Zentralrat der Muslime in Deutschland and Koordinierungsrat der Muslime by Schirin Amir-Moazami II. 2. Religious Guidance and Public Debates: Imams, chaplains, and intellectuals 47. Imams in Britain: agents of de-radicalisation? by Philip Lewis 48. Imams in France by Frank Peter 49. Agents of radicalisation or agents of moderation and integration? Some remarks on the German debate about Imams by Melanie Kamp 50. Imams in Belgium: integration factor or radicalisation instrument? by Mohamed El Battiui 51. Imams and Radicalisation in The Netherlands by Firdaous Oueslati 52. Imams and processes of ?radicalization? in Denmark by Inge Liengaard 53. Imams and Radicalisation in Spain by Jordi Moreras 54. Muslims in prison and processes of radicalisation: United Kingdom by Muzammil Quraishi 55. Muslims in Prison and Processes of Radicalisation: Denmark by Jon Alix Olsen 56. Rashid al-Ghannushi by Lutz Rogler 57. Tariq Ramadan by Frank Peter II. 3. Islamic Knowledge, Education, and Muslims at Public Universities 58. Denmark: Islam classes by Tina Gudrun Jensen 59. Islamic Higuer Education in the Netherlands. Representation of the Islamic University of Rotterdam in the Dutch written media by Firdaous Ouestlati 60. Islamic education in Germany: Institut fur Internationale Padagogik und Didaktik, Cologne and the Zentrum fur Islamische Frauenforderung und Forschung by Jeanette Jouili and Melanie Kamp 61. Islamic Education: Seminaries and Institutes: L?Institut Europeen des Sciences Humaines- France by Firdaous Oueslati 62. Muslim internet sites in Denmark by Birgitte Schepelern Johansen and Dorthe Hovids Possing 63. Muslim free schools in Denmark by Tallat Shakoor 64. Federation of Student Islamic Societies (FOSIS), UK by Shaida Nabi 65. Muslims at British Universities by David Tyrer Part III - Islamophobia 66. Introduction: Fear of Islam and Antagonism towards Muslims in Europe by Frank Peter 67. Brussels as a landscape of fear by Nadia Fadil 68. Denmark by Heiko Henkel 69. The Construction of Radical Islam in France: The Headscarf Affair by Alexandre Caeiro and Frank Peter 70. The irresponsible Muslim: Islam in German public culture by Werner Schiffauer 71. Domes, minarets and the Islamic threat in Italy. 'Pig day' and media debate by Ermete Mariani 72. 'The End of Tolerance'. Islam and the Transformations of Identity and Secularism in the Netherlands by Sarah Bracke 73. Spain: who's afraid of what? by Elena Arigita 74. The Rise of the British National Party: Anti-Muslim Politics and the Politics of Fear by Chris Allen GLOSSARY p. 455 ABBREVIATIONS
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