Islamophobia examines the online and offline experiences of hate crime against Muslims, and the impact upon victims, their families and wider communities. It highlights the multidimensional relationship between online and offline anti-Muslim attacks and includes the voices of victims themselves which leads to strategies for future prevention.
Irene Zempi is a lecturer in criminology at Nottingham Trent University. Imran Awan is deputy director of the Centre for Applied Criminology at Birmingham City University.
Understanding Islamophobia; Research methods; Triggers of Islamophobic violence; Nature and extent of online and offline Islamophobia; Impacts of online and offline Islamophobia; Prevention and responses.