Assessment has long been recognized as a key feature inlearning efficacy, especially through formative evaluation. Item banking, the storage and classification of test items,is an essential part of systematic assessment. This volume is based on a NATO Advanced Research Workshopheld as part of the Special Programme on AdvancedEducational Technology. The workshop brought togetherscholars from around the world to discuss and criticallyanalyze the issues and problems associated with SubjectiveProbability Measurement (SPM) or the more generic researcharea called self-assessment. Recent advances in computertechnology (expert systems, interactive video disks, andhypermedia) along with the developing sophistication ofself-assessment scoring systems based on SPM made thisconference particularly important and timely. The book is divided into three main parts:- The input: item banking and hypermedia- The process: subjective probabilities- The output: teaching and learning feedbacks.
In summary, although SPM is a difficult theoretical conceptfor most educators to comprehend, the sophisticated natureof modern computer systems coupled with comprehensiveformative and summative evaluation and self-assessmentsystems make SPM transparent to the user.