For almost two decades Prof. Shifman, a clear and pedagogical expositor, has been giving review lectures on frontier topics in theoretical high energy physics. This two-volume book is a collection of some of the best of those lectures. The lectures written in the 1980's and early 1990's have been revised and updated specifically for this publication. The lectures in this book are intended for beginners - graduate students and young researchers - who are about to delve into the intricacies of the theory. They were used by the author in his course ';Advanced Modern Field Theory and Its Applications';, given in the academic year 1994/95 at the University of Minnesota.A wide range of key topics is covered. In Volume 1, the first two chapters are devoted to quantum chromodynamics as the theory of hadrons. The author gives an in-depth discussion of a variety ofpowerful methods based on Wilson's operator product expansion. Chapter 3 (written together with V Novikov, A Vainshtein, and V Zakharov) is the most systematic and pedagogical presentation of instantons in the gauge theories one can find in the literature. Chapter 4 introduces supersymmetry. Chapter 5, concluding this volume, reviews the fascinating dynamics of supersymmetric gauge theories in the strong coupling regime. Chapter 6, which opens Volume 2, is a culmination of the supersymmetric theme. It gives a state-of-the-art description of the breakthrough developments in supersymmetric gauge theories. It has been written specifically for this book by A Vainshtein and the author. Chapter 7 is designed as a primer of two-dimensional conformal field theory, which constitutes the basis of modern string theory. Chapter 8, the last, presents remarkable new findings in quantum mechanics. Every chapter contains exercises and a list of recommended literature.Prof. Shifman has been an active participant and significant contributor in the development of the ideas presented in this book. This accounts for the historical remarks and digressions interspersed in the book, enhancing its pedagogical role. The book will serve as a comprehensive reference and textbook for all graduate students and researchers interested in modern particle physics. It will also be a useful guide for lecturers.