Both Ephesians 4:11 and I Corinthians 12:29 attest to the distinctiveness of the roles of pastor and teacher; and Nicholas claims that for the majority of recent history, since the rise of Scholasticism, this distinction has been strictly adhered to. The rise of the Scholastic method within theological discourse radically transformed the way theology was envisioned, from its bases and method to its purpose and sources. This change had a far-reaching effect on theology which would contribute to the discipline's self-understanding. Whereas theology was initially more of a meditation on and exposition of God's self-disclosure in the Word, in the new style of theological discourse practiced by the schoolmen, theology increasingly became the methodical parsing of abstract truth which was dissociated from the concrete realities of an embodied Christianity. However, one need not maintain the possibility of distinct roles to the detriment of seeing both offices in a single individual. Indeed the New Testament and the early Fathers consistently exhibit a complete naivete concerning such a divide.
The writers of the New Testament and the early Fathers were seen as 'complete personalities', who were unable to envisage the separation of theology and spirituality. Jean Danielou's Doxological Humanism is primarily a discussion of the ways in which academic theology can reacquaint itself with spirituality and the reasons it should. Nicholas turns to the writings of Jesuit theologian, historian and cardinal Jean Danielou and finds an understanding of who we are that necessitates this union. Further, for Danielou, an essential aspect of this unified view of the human person is its doxological nature. To attain the fullest expression of humanity is to participate in the adoration, worship and contemplation involved in the life of prayer.
Marc Nicholas is an instructor in religion in the Philosophy department at McLennan Community College in Waco, Texas.
1. Introduction 2. History and Prayer 3. Prayer, Trinity and Mission 4. Prayer and the Spiritual Life 5. The Crisis of Interiority and the Truly Human City 6. Danielou's Doxological Humanism Bibliography