What is jihad? Does it mean violence, as many non-Muslims assume? Or does it mean peace, as some Muslims insist? Because jihad is closely associated with the early spread of Islam, today's debate about the origin and meaning of jihad is nothing less than a struggle over Islam itself. In Jihad in Islamic History, Michael Bonner provides the first study in English that focuses on the early history of jihad, shedding much-needed light on the most recent controversies over jihad. To some, jihad is the essence of radical Islamist ideology, a synonym for terrorism, and even proof of Islam's innate violence. To others, jihad means a peaceful, individual, and internal spiritual striving. Bonner, however, shows that those who argue that jihad means only violence or only peace are both wrong. Jihad is a complex set of doctrines and practices that have changed over time and continue to evolve today. The Quran's messages about fighting and jihad are inseparable from its requirements of generosity and care for the poor. Jihad has often been a constructive and creative force, the key to building new Islamic societies and states.
Jihad has regulated relations between Muslims and non-Muslims, in peace as well as in war. And while today's "jihadists" are in some ways following the "classical" jihad tradition, they have in other ways completely broken with it. Written for general readers who want to understand jihad and its controversies, Jihad in Islamic History will also interest specialists because of its original arguments.
Michael Bonner is Professor of Medieval Islamic History at the University of Michigan. "Jihad in Islamic History" originally appeared in French as "Le Jihad: origines, interpretations, combats". Bonner is also the author of "Aristocratic Violence and Holy War: Studies in the Jihad and the Arab-Byzantine Frontier" and "Arab-Byzantine Relations in Early Islamic Times".
List of Maps xi Symbols and Accent Marks xiii Preface xv CHAPTER ONE: Introduction 1 What Is Jihad? 1 Just War and Holy War 4 Warfare and Jihad 6 Fields of Debate 10 Historiography and Origins 14 Readings 18 CHAPTER TWO: The Quran and Arabia 20 Combat in the Quran 21 Gift and Reciprocity 27 Fighting and Recompense 30 "The Beggar and the Warrior" 32 Readings 34 CHAPTER THREE: Muhammad and His Community 36 Sira and Maghazi: Sacred History 37 Hadith: The Norm 45 Themes of Jihad in the Hadith 49 Fighting with One's Money 51 Readings 54 CHAPTER FOUR: The Great Conquests 56 The Course of Conquest 58 Explanations 60 Approaches to the Islamic Sources 64 Approaches to the Non-Islamic Sources 67 Readings 71 CHAPTER FIVE: Martyrdom 72 Martyrdom before Islam 73 Martyrdom in Quran and Tradition 74 Contexts of Martyrdom in Islam 76 Martyrs and Neomartyrs 79 Readings 82 CHAPTER SIX: Encounter with the Other 84 Conquest Society and Fiscal Regime 84 Treatment of Non-Muslims 87 Abode of Islam, Abode of War 92 Convivencia 93 Readings 95 CHAPTER SEVEN: Embattled Scholars 97 Syria and the Byzantine Frontier 98 Arabia 102 Iraq: The Synthesis of al-Shafi"i 106 North Africa 108 Spain 111 Central Asia 112 The Embattled Scholars: Conclusions 114 Readings 116 CHAPTER EIGHT: Empires, Armies, and Frontiers 118 The Umayyad Caliphate: Imperial Jihad 119 Revolution and Jihad 124 The "Abbasid Caliphate and Its Military Crisis 127 Frontier Societies: Against Byzantium 131 Frontier Societies: Spain and North Africa 134 Ribat 136 The Crusades 137 Ottoman Origins 144 Corsairs in the Mediterranean 149 The Western Sudan 151 Empires, Armies, and Frontiers: Conclusions 153 Readings 155 CHAPTER NINE: Colonial Empire, Modern State, New Jihad 157 Resistance and Reform 157 Fundamentalism and Islamism 161 Readings 165 CHAPTER TEN: Conclusions 167 Bibliography 175 Index 191