Originally published in 1989,
Karst Geomorphology and Hydrology became the leading textbook on karst studies. This new textbook has been substantially revised and updated.
The first half of the book is a systematic presentation of the dissolution kinetics, chemical equilibria and physical flow laws relating to karst environments. It includes details of the many environmental factors that complicate their chemical evolution, with a critique of measurement of karst erosion rates. The second half of the book looks at the classification system for cave systems and the influence of climate and climatic change on karst development. The book ends with chapters on karst water resource management and a look at the important issues of environmental management, including environmental impact assessment, environmental rehabilitation, tourism impacts and conservation values. Practical application of karst studies are explained throughout the text.
"This new edition strengthens the book's position as the essential reference in the field. Karst geoscientists will not dare to stray beyond arm's reach of this volume. It is certain to remain the professional standard for many decades." Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, August 2007
Preface. Acknowledgements. CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO KARST. 1.1 Definitions. 1.2 The Relationship Between Karst And General Geomorphology And Hydrogeology. 1.3 The Global Distribution Of Karst. 1.4 The Growth Of Ideas. 1.5 Aims Of The Book. 1.6 Karst Terminology. CHAPTER 2. THE KARST ROCKS. 2.1 Carbonate Rocks And Minerals. 2.2 Limestone Compositions And Depositional Facies. 2.3 Limestone Diagenesis And The Formation Of Dolomite. 2.4 The Evaporite Rocks. 2.5. Quartzites And Siliceous Sandstones. 2.6 Effects Of Lithologic Properties Upon Karst Development. 2.7 Interbedded Clastic Rocks. 2.8 Bedding Planes, Joints, Faults And Fracture Traces. 2.9 Fold Topography. 2.10 Paleokarst Unconformities. CHAPTER 3. DISSOLUTION: CHEMICAL AND KINETIC BEHAVIOUR OF THE KARST ROCKS. 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Aqueous Solutions And Chemical Equilibria. 3.3 The Dissolution Of Anhydrite, Gypsum And Salt. 3.4 The Dissolution Of Silica. 3.5 Bicarbonate Equilibria And The Dissolution Of Carbonate Rocks In Normal Meteoric Waters. 3.6 The S-O-H System And The Dissolution Of Carbonate Rocks. 3.7 Chemical Complications In Carbonate Dissolution. 3.8 Biokarst Processes. 3.9 Measurements In The Field And Lab; Computer Programs. 3.10 Dissolution And Precipitation Kinetics Of Karst Rocks. CHAPTER 4. DISTRIBUTION AND RATE OF KARST DENUDATION. 4.1 Global Variations In The Solutional Denudation Of Carbonate Terrains. 4.2 Measurement And Calculation Of Solutional Denudation Rates. 4.3 Solution Rates In Gypsum, Salt And Other Non-Carbonate Rocks. 4.4 Interpretation Of Measurements. CHAPTER 5. KARST HYDROLOGY. 5.1 Basic Hydrological Concepts, Terms And Definitions. 5.2 Controls On The Development Of Karst Hydrologic Systems. 5.3 Energy Supply And Flow Network Development. 5.4 Development Of The Water Table And Phreatic Zones. 5.5 Development Of The Vadose Zone. 5.6 Classification And Characteristics Of Karst Aquifers. 5.7 Applicability Of Darcy's Law To Karst. 5.8 The Fresh Water/Salt Water Interface. CHAPTER 6. ANALYSIS OF KARST DRAINAGE SYSTEMS. 6.1 The 'Grey Box' Nature Of Karst. 6.2 Surface Exploration And Survey Techniques. 6.3 Investigating Recharge And Percolation In The Vadose Zone. 6.4 Borehole Analysis. 6.5 Spring Hydrograph Analysis. 6.6 Polje Hydrograph Analysis. 6.7 Spring Chemograph Interpretation. 6.8 Storage Volumes And Flow Routing Under Different States Of The Hydrograph. 6.9 Interpreting The Organisation Of A Karst Aquifer. 6.10 Water Tracing Techniques. 6.11 Computer Modelling Of Karst Aquifers. CHAPTER 7. SPELEOGENESIS: THE DEVELOPMENT OF CAVE SYSTEMS. 7.1 Classifying Cave Systems. 7.2 Building The Plan Patterns Of Unconfined Caves. 7.3 Unconfined Cave Development In Length And Depth. 7.4 System Modifications Occurring Within A Single Phase. 7.5 Multi-Phase Cave Systems. 7.6 Meteoric Water Caves Developed Where There Is Confined Circulation Or Basal Injection Of Water. 7.7 Hypogene Caves: (A) Hydrothermal Caves Associated Chiefly With Co2. 7.8 Hypogene Caves: (B) Caves Formed By Waters Containing H2s. 7.9 Sea Coast Eogenetic Caves. 7.10 Passage Cross-Sections And Smaller Features Of Erosional Morphology. 7.11 Condensation, Condensation Corrosion, And Weathering In Caves. 7.12 Breakdown In Caves. CHAPTER 8. CAVE INTERIOR DEPOSITS. 8.1 Introduction. 8.2 Clastic Sediments. 8.3 Calcite, Aragonite And Other Carbonate Precipitates. 8.4 Other Cave Minerals. 8.5 Ice In Caves. 8.6 Dating Of Calcite Speleothems And Other Cave Deposits. 8.7 Paleo-Environmental Analysis Of Calcite Speleothems. 8.8 Mass Flux Through A Cave System: The Example Of Friar s Hole, W.Va. CHAPTER 9. KARST LANDFORM DEVELOPMENT IN HUMID REGIONS. 9.1 Coupled Hydrological And Geochemical Systems. 9.2 Small Scale Solution Sculpture - Microkarren And Karren. 9.3 Dolines - The 'Diagnostic' Karst Landform? 9.4 The Origin And Development Of Solution Dolines. 9.5 The Origin Of Collapse And Subsidence Depressions. 9.6 Polygonal Karst. 9.7 Morphometric Analysis Of Solution Dolines. 9.8 Landforms Associated With Allogenic Inputs. 9.9 Karst Poljes. 9.10 Corrosional Plains And Shifts In Baselevel. 9.11 Residual Hills On Karst Plains. 9.12 Depositional And Constructional Karst Features. 9.13 Special Features Of Evaporite Terrains. 9.14 Karstic Features Of Quartzose And Other Rocks. 9.15 Sequences Of Carbonate Karst Evolution In Humid Terrains. CHAPTER 10.THE INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE, CLIMATIC CHANGE AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON KARST DEVELOPMENT. 10.1 The Precepts Of Climatic Geomorphology. 10.2 The Hot Arid Extreme. 10.3 The Cold Extreme: 1 Karst Development In Glaciated Terrains. 10.4 The Cold Extreme: 2 Karst Development In Permafrozen Terrains. 10.5 Sea Level Changes, Tectonic Movement And Implications For Coastal Karst Development. 10.6 Polycyclic, Polygenetic And Exhumed Karsts. CHAPTER 11. KARST WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT. 11.1 Water Resources And Sustainable Yields. 11.2 Determination Of Available Water Resources. 11.3 Karst Hydrogeological Mapping. 11.4 Human Impacts On Karst Water. 11.5 Groundwater Vulnerability, Protection, And Risk Mapping. 11.6 Dam Building, Leakages, Failures And Impacts. CHAPTER 12. HUMAN IMPACTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL REHABILITATION. 12.1 The Inherent Vulnerability Of Karst Systems. 12.2 Deforestation, Agricultural Impacts And Rocky Desertification. 12.3 Sinkholes Induced By De-Watering, Surcharging, Solution Mining And Other Practices On Karst. 12.4 Problems Of Construction On And In The Karst Rocks - Expect The Unexpected! 12.5 Industrial Exploitation Of Karst Rocks And Minerals. 12.6 Restoration Of Karstlands And Rehabilitation Of Limestone Quarries. 12.7 Sustainable Management Of Karst. 12.8 Scientific, Cultural And Recreational Values Of Karstlands. References. Index.