In this completely revised edition, all the chapters have been updated to reflect the current state of crystal growth kinetics. At the same time, fifteen percent additional content now allows coverage of computer-assisted modeling of second-order phase changes, microstructure development, novel data and images of coarsening mechanisms, with the most significant single addition being breakthrough results on spinodal decomposition -- published here for the first time in book form.
The refined didactical approach with a streamlined presentation now allows readers to grasp the kinetic concepts even more easily, coherently introducing the field of kinetic processes, especially those involved in crystal growth, and explaining such phenomena as diffusion, nucleation, segregation and phase transitions at a level accessible to graduate students. In addition to the basic kinetic concepts, the textbook presents modern applications where these processes play a major role, including ion implantation, plasma deposition and rapid thermal processing.
Kenneth A. Jackson is Professor Emeritus in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Arizona in Tucson, USA. He received his PhD degree from Harvard University and was an assistant Professor there before he joined AT&T Bell Laboratories. At Bell Labs he was head of Materials Physics Research for many years. His major scientific interests are the kinetic processes of crystal growth, and his scientific contributions include constitutional supercooling, the surface roughening transition, defect formation in crystals, and studies of alloy crystallization. He pioneered in computer simulation studies of the atomic scale processes during crystal growth. Kenneth A. Jackson has served as President for both the American Association for Crystal Growth and the Materials Research Society. He has received numerous awards for his scientific contributions from both the American and the International Crystal Growth societies. He is also a member of the National Academy of Engineering.
Preface to the First Edition Preface to the Second Edition INTRODUCTION Arrhenius Plot The Relationship between Kinetics and Thermodynamics The Boltzmann Distribution Kinetic Theory of Gases Collisions DIFFUSION IN FLUIDS Diffusion in a Gas Diffusion in Liquids DIFFUSION IN AMORPHOUS MATERIALS Amorphous Materials Network Glass Formers The Glass Transition The Free Volume Model Fictive Temperature Diffusion in Polymers The Stokes-Einstein Relationship DIFFUSION IN CRYSTALS Diffusion in a Crystal Diffusion Mechanisms in Crystals Equilibrium Concentration of Vacancies Simmons and Balluffi Experiment Ionic and Covalent Crystals Stoichiometry Measurement of Diffuion Coefficients Surface Diffusion Diffusion in Grain Boundaries Kirkendall Effect Whisker Growth Electromigration DIFFUSION IN SEMICONDUCTORS Introduction Diffusion in Silicon Diffusion of Zinc in GaAs Recombination Enhanced Diffusion Doping of Semiconductors Point Defect Generation in Silicon during Crystal Growth Migration of Interstitials (and Liquid Droplets) in a Temperature Gradient Oxygen in Silicon Gettering Solid-State Doping ION IMPLANTATION Introduction Ion Interactions Implantation Damage Rutherford Backscattering Channeling Silicon-on-Insulator MATHEMATICS OF DIFFUSION Random Walk The Diffusion Equation Solutions to the Diffusion Equation Numerical Methods Boltzmann-Matano Analysis Diffusion During Phase Separation STEFAN PROBLEMS Steady State Solutions to the Diffusion Equation Deal-Grove Analysis Diffusion Controlled Growth of a Spherical Precipitate Diffusion Limited Growth in Cylindrical Coordinates Diffuion Controlled Growth of a Precipitate PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS Transformation Rate Limited Growth Diffuion Limited Growth Thermally Limited Growth Casting of Metals Operating Point CRYSTAL GROWTH METHODS Melt Growth Solution Growth Vapor Phase Growth Stoichiometry SEGREGATION Segregation During a Phase Change Lever Rule Scheil Equation Zone Refining Diffusion at a Moving Interface Segregation in Three Dimensions Burton, Primm and Schlicter Analysis INTERFACE INSTABILITIES Constitutional Supercooling Mullins and Sekerka Linear Instability Analysis Anisotropic INterface Kinetics CHEMICAL REACTION RATE THEORY The Equilibrium Constant Reaction Rate Theory Reaction Rate Constant Transition State Theory Experimental Determination of the Order of a Reaction Net Rate of Reaction Catalysis Quasi-Equilibrium Model for the Rate of a First Order Phase Change PHASE EQUILIBRIA First Order Phase Changes Second Order Phase Changes Critical Point Between Liquid and Vapor NUCLEATION Homogenous Nucleation Heterogeneous Nucleation Johnson-Mehl-Avrami Equation SURFACE LAYERS Langmuir Adsorption CVD Growth by a Surface Decomposition Reaction Langmuir-Hinschelwood Reaction Surface Nucleation Thin Films Surface Reconstruction Amorphous Deposits Surface Modification Fractal Deposits Strain Energy and Misfit Dislocations Strained Layer Growth THIN FILM DEPOSITION Liquid Phase Epitaxy Growth Configuration for LPE Chemical Vapor Deposition Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition Physical Vapor Deposition Sputter Deposition Metallization Laser Ablation Molecular Beam Epitaxy Atomic Layer Epitaxy PLASMAS Direct Current (DC) Plasmas Radio Frequency Plasmas Plasma Etching Plasma Reactors Magnetron Sputtering Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Milling RAPID THERMAL PROCESSING Introduction Rapid Thermal Processing Equipment Radiative Heating Temperature Measurement Thermal Stress Laser Heating KINETICS OF FIRST ORDER PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS General Considerations The Macroscopic Shape of Crystals General Equation for the Growth Rate of Crystals Kinetic Driving Force Vapor Phase Growth Melt Growth Molecular Dynamics Studies of Melt Crystallization Kinetics The Kossel-Stranski Model Nucleation of Layers Growth on Screw Dislocations The Fluctuation Dissipation Theorem THE SURFACE ROUGHENING TRANSITION Surface Roughness The Ising Model Cooperative Processes Monte Carlo Simulations of Crystallization Equilibrium Surface Structure Computer Simulations Growth Morphologies Kinetic Roughening Polymer Crystallization ALLOYS: THERMODYNAMICS AND KINETICS Crystallization of Alloys Phase Equilibria Regular Solution Model Near Equilibrium Conditions Phase Diagrams The DLP Model PHASE SEPARATION AND ORDERING Phase Separation versus Ordering Phase Separation The Spinodal in a Regular Solution Analytical Model for Diffusion during Spinodal Decomposition Microstructure Development Modeling of Phase Separation and Ordering NON-EQUILIBRIUM CRYSTALLIZATION OF ALLOYS Non Equilibrium Crystallization Experiment Computer Modeling Analytical Model Comparison with Experiment Crystallization of Glasses COARSENING, RIPENING Coarsening Free Energy of a Small Particle Coarsening in a Solution Coarsening of Dendritic Structures Sintering Bubbles Grain Boundaries Scrath Smoothing DENDRITES Dendritic Growth Conditions for Dendritic Growth Simple Dendrite Model Phase Field Modeling Faceted Growth Distribution Coefficient EUTECTICS Eutectic Phase Diagram Classes of Eutectic Microstructures Analysis of Lamellar Eutectics Off-Composition Eutectics Coupled Growth Third Component Elements CASTINGS Grain Structure of Castings Dendrite Re-Melting