Kinetics, Transport, and Structure in Hard and Soft Materials

Kinetics, Transport, and Structure in Hard and Soft Materials

By: Peter F. Green (author)Hardback

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Description

Kinetics, Transport, and Structure in Hard and Soft Materials is the only single reference that discusses the connection between structure and mechanisms of atomic or molecular transport in different classes of materials, from metals and semiconductors to network glasses, polymers and supercooled liquids. Divided into four parts, Part I begins with a discussion the fundamentals of transport, wherein transport properties of a system of non-interacting particles are calculated and the phenomenon of Brownian motion introduced. The phenomenology of diffusion is also discussed wherein Fick's laws are introduced and solved for a range of practical cases involving mass transport. Elementary Statistical mechanics, involving Partition functions, probability distribution functions and correlation functions, is discussed to lay the foundation for the subsequent discussion of mechanisms of transport in different materials. Parts II and III focus on mechanisms of transport in crystalline materials and in structurally disordered materials. Chapters explain how the mechanism of diffusional transport of an atom or molecule is intimately connected to the spatial organization of neighboring structural elements and to its interactions with them. The book reviews factors that control temperature dependent long-range dynamics of glass-forming systems. Diffusion and viscoelasticity of polymer melts, transport (viscous flow and ionic diffusion) in inorganic network glasses, and dynamic heterogeneity in super cooled liquids are described. Part IV analyzes the development of instabilities, such as spinodal decomposition and Mullins-Sekerka instabilities, which lead to the morphological evolution of materials. Kinetics, Transport, and Structure in Hard and Soft Materials emphasizes interdisciplinary nature of transport in materials, presenting its material in a user-friendly format for students from any discipline with a foundation in elementary differential equations and thermodynamics or physical chemistry. This book shows how transport processes in materials are fundamentally connected a wide range of innovative applications of materials across several industries.

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Contents

TOOLS: ELEMENTS OF EQUILIBRIUM AND TRANSPORT IN SIMPLE SYSTEMS Elements of Diffusional Transport Introduction: Elements of Transport in Materials Transport of non-interacting particles The Phenomenology of Diffusional Transport: Fick's Laws Diffusion Problems Involving Steady State Flow Diffusion of Particles From a Point Source (1-Dimension) Diffusion of Species Due Spatially Extended Sources Concluding Remarks Problems Appendices Brownian Motion Introduction The Random # Correlation funct#ions Langevin Analysis Light Scattering Problems Appendix References MECHANISMS OF DIFFUSIONAL TRANSPORT IN CRYSTALLINE MATERIALS Elements of Atomic Diffusion on Crystalline Lattice Introduction Crystal Structure and Point Defects Tracer and Self Diffusion in Crystals: General Comments Atomic Transport in Crystals Via a Single Vacancy Mechanism Equilibrium vacancy Concentration in Crystals Divacancies and Their Effect on Diffusion Diffusion of Intersitials in Crystals Ring Mechanism of Atomic Diffusion The Interstitialcy Mechanism of Atomic Diffusion Diffusion in the Presence of Impurities Isotope Effects Effects of Pressure on Diffusion Diffusion Near Dislocations and Grain Boundaries Concluding Remarks Problems References and Additional Reading Diffusion in Ionic Crystals: Alkali Halides Introduction Defects in Ionic Crystals Frenkel Defect Concentration Schottky Defect Concentration Diffusional Transport of Cationic and Ionic Defects Diffusivity of Frenkel Defects Diffusion of Schottky defects The Effect of Multivalent Impurities on Conductivity Comments on Transport in Alkali Halide Crystals: Transport Coefficients Problems for Chapter 4 References and Additional Reading Diffusion in Semiconductors Introduction Structure and Point Defects in Silicon Self Diffusion in Silicon and Germanium Diffusion of Dopants Concluding Remarks Problems References MECHANISMS OF DIFFUSIONAL TRANSPORT IN SYSTEMS THAT LACK LONG-RANGE ORDER Transport and Viscoelasticity of Large Macromolecules Introduction and Context Classification of Polymers Properties of a Single Polymer Chain Phenomenology of the Viscoelastic Behavior of Polymers Microscopic Model for Diffusion and Viscoelasticity in Polymer Melts Concluding Remarks Problems References Transport Processes in Inorganic Network Glasses Introduction Inorganic Network Glass Formers: Structure Bulk Transport Processes Inorganic Network Glass Formers Connection Between Kinetic and Thermodynamic Fragility "Strong" Versus "Fragile" Melts, a Structural Connection Relaxation Functions Mechanical Relaxations Phenomenology of Secondary Relaxations: Ionic Conductivity Conductivity and Diffusion Secondary Relaxations in ECR and MR Experiments Mechanism of Cation Transport in Ionic Network Glasses Concluding Remarks Problems References Appendix A7 Comments on Heterogeneous Dynamics in the Disordered State Introduction Temperature Dependencies of Relaxations Comments on Dynamics in the Supercooled State Comments on the Stokes-Einstein Relationship Final Comments Problems References PATTERN FORMATION AND INSTABILITIES Phase Separation in Binary Mixtures: Spinodal Decomposition and Nucleation Introduction Free Energy of Mixing of a Binary Polymer-Polymer Mixture Spinodal Decomposition An Example Involving a Polymer-Polymer Mixture Remarks Regarding Spinodal Decomposition Nucleation Heterogeneous Nucleation Concluding Remarks on Nucleation and Growth Interdiffusion: Diffusion in Chemical Potential Gradients Introduction Transport in Diffusion Couples The Hartley-Crank Equation Interdiffusion in Polymers Measurements of Interdiffusion Concluding Remarks Growth: Moving Interfaces and Instabilities in Bulk Materials Introduction Effect of Curvature on the Properties of Small Particles Moving Front in a Supercooled Melt Instabilities at an Interface in a Saturated Environment Brief Comments on Microstructure Problems Comments on Instabilities and Pattern Formation in Condensed Matter Introduction Instabilities That Arise in Driven Liquid Films Instabilities in Films of Nano-Scale Thickness Instabilities Involving Macroscopic or Bulk flowsFinal Comments References Further reading

Product Details

  • publication date: 20/04/2005
  • ISBN13: 9781574447682
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 353
  • ID: 9781574447682
  • weight: 635
  • ISBN10: 1574447688

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