Land Application of Sewage Sludge and Biosolids
By: Eliot Epstein (author)Hardback
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Over 50 percent of the 6,900 million dry tons of sewage sludge generated each year in the United States is land applied. The principal controversies surrounding the land application of biosolids involve heavy metals and pathogens. Land Application of Sewage Sludge and Biosolids is a comprehensive, scientific text providing a complete review of various aspects of this controversial subject, from an extensive discussion of heavy metals and pathogens to the fate and effects of organic compounds. Consideration is given to crop removal of metals and organics, soil erosion, and leaching, as well as to differing approaches and regulations in Europe and Canada. The result is an authoritative, science-based, and unbiased perspective on the benefits and the potential risks of land application to human health and the environment. About the Author: Elliot Epstein, Ph.D. is Chief Environmental Scientist for Tetra Tech, Inc. and an adjunct professor of public health at Boston University School of Public Health. He received his Ph.D. in soil physics from Purdue University and served as a research leader for the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service for 16 years. Dr.
Epstein has more than 30 years of experience in biosolids composting, and has managed or directed more than 400 composting projects. He has consulted on composting and biosolids management for the USEPA, World Bank, and United Nations.
Land Application of Biosolids: A Prospective Introduction Use and Disposal of Sewage Sludge and Biosolids Systems for the Use or Disposal of Sewage Sludge and Biosolids History of Land Application of Sewage Sludge and Biosolids Wastewater Treatment and Biosolids Production Conclusion References Sewage Sludge and Biosolids' Characteristics Introduction Physical Properties Chemical Properties Trace Elements, Heavy Metals, and Micronutrients Organic Compounds Acidity (pH) Plant Nutrients Biological Properties Microbiological Organic Matter Conclusion References Plant Nutrients Introduction Nitrogen Ammonification Nitrification Immobilization Denitrification Volatilization Mineralization Phosphorus Potassium Micronutrients Conclusion References Trace Elements: Heavy Metals and Micronutrients Introduction Sources of Trace Elements, Heavy Metals, and Micronutrients in the Environment Trace Elements in Biosolids Trace Elements in Animals, Humans, Soils and Plants Arsenic (As) Animals and Humans Soils Plants Cadmium (Cd) Animals and Humans Soil Plants Chromium (Cr) Animals and Humans Soils Plants Copper (Cu) Animals and Humans Soils Plants Lead (Pb) Animals and Humans Soils Plants Mercury (Hg) Animals and Humans Soils Plants Molybdenum (Mo) Animals and Humans Soils Plants Nickel (Ni) Animals and Humans Soil Plants Selenium (Se) Soil Plants Zinc (Zn) Animals and Humans Soil Plants Conclusion References The Effect of Sewage Sludge and Biosolids on Uptake of Trace Elements and Reactions in Soil Introduction Plant Uptake of Heavy Metals Reactions and Movement in Soils Conclusion References Organic Chemicals Introduction Fate of Toxic Organic Compounds when Biosolids are Land Applied Photodecomposition Degradation Plant Uptake of Organic Compounds Conclusion References Pathogens in Wastewater and Biosolids Introduction Pathogens in Wastewater, Sludge and Biosolids Removal of Pathogens by Wastewater Treatment Processes Effect of Biosolids Treatment Aerobic Digestion Anaerobic digestion Composting Heat Drying Alkaline stabilization Conclusion References Pathogens in Soils and on Plants Introduction Pathogens in Soils Bacteria Viruses Parasites Pathogens on Plants Conclusion References Land Application: Agricultural Crop Responses Introduction Agronomic Crops Research Results Prior to 1970 Research Results 1970 to 2001 Forestry and Reclamation Forestry Reclamation Conclusion References Effect of Land Application of Biosolids on Animals and Other Organisms Introduction Animals Domestic Wildlife Microbial Earthworms Conclusion References Regulations Introduction Concepts and Approaches to Regulations United States Method I. 185 Method II. Class A Requirements Process Requirements Alternative 1. Thermally Treated Sewage Sludge [(503.32(a)(3)] 1 Alternative 2. Sewage Sludge Treated in a High pH-temperature Process (Alkaline Treatment) [503.329(a) (94)] Alternative 3. Sewage Sludge Treated in Other Processes [503.32(a)(5)] Alternative 4. Sewage Sludge Treated in Unknown Processes [503.31(a)(6)]. Alternative 5. Use of Process to Further Reduce Pathogens (PFRP) [503.32(a)(7)] Alternative 6. Use of a Process Equivalent to PFRP [503.32(a)(8)] Class B Requirements Canada Europe Conclusion References
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- ID: 9781566706247
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