In the 5th century B.C., Greece was a patchwork country of small, independent city-states whose tendency to fight each other was offset only by strong ties to common cultural elements such as language and a unique style of warfare. While surviving myths emphasize heroics and honor, the reality of ancient Greek warfare was that of regular men dealing with everyday problems. Relying heavily on primary sources such as Herodotus, Thucydides and Plutarch, this volume provides the first-ever tactical level survey of all Greek land engagements which occurred during the 5th century B.C., a seminal period in the history of western warfare. These 173 battles range from the Ionian Revolt to the Persian Invasion to the Great Peloponnesian War which dominated much of 5th century Greece. Using carefully researched logical probabilities to extend surviving records, the author places each battle within its historical context and analyzes it with a view to documenting any significant overall patterns of action. The result is not only a detailed study of each battle complete with maps and battlefield diagrams, but also an overview of general trends in 5th century Greek warfare.
Geologist Fred Eugene Ray lives in Bakersfield, California.
Table of Contents Preface 1 Introduction 5 I. The Spearmen: Greek Hoplite Warfare (500-401 B.C.) 7 II. Arguing with Socrates: Territorial Disputes, the Ionian Revolt, and the Rise of Sparta and Gela (500-481 B.C.) 21 III. The Strength of Lions: Marathon, Himera, and the Invasion of Greece 59 IV. Prelude to Collision: The Pentacontaetia (478-432 B.C.) 109 V. Danger and Glory: The Archidamian War (431-422 B.C.) 150 VI. Daring and Destruction: The Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Invasion (421-413 B.C.) 199 VII. A World at Spear's Length: The Decelean/Ionian War to the End of the 5th Century (413-401 B.C.) 237 Conclusion 287 Table 1: Combat Factors in Greek Pitched Battles (500-401 B.C.) 289 Table 2: Decisive Factors in Greek Pitched Battles (500-401 B.C.) 293 Table 3: Pitched Battle Record of Major Combatants (500-401 B.C.) 298 Table 4: Hoplite Losses and Point/Cause of Formation Failure for Greek Pitched Battles (500-401 B.C.) 301 Bibliography 307 Index 313