This work provides in-depth analysis of the origins of landscape ecology and its close alignment with the understanding of scale, the causes of landscape pattern, and the interactions of spatial pattern with a variety of ecological processes. The text covers the quantitative approaches that are applied widely in landscape studies, with emphasis on their appropriate use and interpretation.The field of landscape ecology has grown rapidly during this period, its concepts and methods have matured, and the published literature has increased exponentially. Landscape research has enhanced understanding of the causes and consequences of spatial heterogeneity and how these vary with scale, and they have influenced the management of natural and human-dominated landscapes. Landscape ecology is now considered mainstream, and the approaches are widely used in many branches of ecology and are applied not only in terrestrial settings but also in aquatic and marine systems. In response to these rapid developments, an updated edition of Landscape Ecology in Theory and Practice provides a synthetic overview of landscape ecology, including its development, the methods and techniques that are employed, the major questions addressed, and the insights that have been gained."
Monica G. TurnerEugene P. Odum Professor of EcologyDepartment of ZoologyUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadison, WI firstname.lastname@example.orgTel. 608-262-2592Robert H. GardnerProfessor EmeritusAppalachian LabUniversity of Maryland Center for Environmental ScienceFrostburg, MD email@example.comTel. 707-230-5106
Table of Contents Chapter 1. Introduction to Landscape Ecology and Scale What is Landscape Ecology? Roots of Landscape Ecology Intellectual Foundations of Landscape Ecology Landscape Ecology Matures Scale and Heterogeneity Scale Terminology Hierarchy Theory and Cross-scale Interactions Upscaling and Downscaling Objectives of this Book Summary Discussion Questions Recommended Readings Chapter 2. Causes of Landscape Pattern Four Key Drivers of Landscape Pattern The Abiotic Template Biotic Interactions Human Land Use Disturbance and Succession Landscape Legacies and the Role of History Why is it Still Difficult to Explain and Predict Landscape Change? Multivariate Interacting Drivers Thresholds and Nonlinearites Social-ecological Systems Limited Ability to Perform Exeriments Summary Discussion Questions Recommended Readings Chapter 3. Introduction to Models What are Models and Why do we use them? What is a Model? Why Landscape Ecologists Need Models Strategy for Developing Models Define the Problem and Develop a Conceptual Model Tactics for Making the Model Work Neutral Landscape Models Neutral Models in Ecology Neutral Models in Landscape Ecology Insights and Applications of NLMs Summary Discussion Questions Recommended Readings Chapter 4. Landscape Metrics Why Quantify Pattern? Data Used in Landscape Analyses A Comment on Spatial Data Accuracy Caveats for Landscape Pattern Analysis, or "READ THIS FIRST" #1 The Classification Scheme is Critical #2 Scale Matters and Must be Defined #3 A Patch is not a Patch #4 Many Metrics are Correlated with one Another (and thus Redundant) #5 There is no Single, Magic Metric Metrics for Quantifying Landscape Pattern Metrics of Landscape Composition Metrics of Spatial Configuration Fractals Measures of Landscape Texture Measures of Landscape Connectivity Landscape Metrics: What is the State of the Science? What Constitutes a "Significant" Difference in Landscape Pattern? Making Sense out of Multiple Metrics Metrics and Landscape Indicators Some Additional Practical Advice and Parting Words Summary Discussion Questions Recommended Readings Chapter 5. Spatial Statistics Why do Landscape Ecologists use Spatial Statistics? Spatial Independence Nature of Spatial Structure Spatial Interpolation Caveats for Using Spatial Statistics, or "READ THIS FIRST" #1 The Spatial Dependence in Landscape Data must be Characterized and Considered #2 Spatial Autocorrelation is Not Always a Problem #3 Coincidence of Scales of Spatial Dependence Among Multiple Variables does not Prove Causality #4 Scale Always Matters #5 Stationarity is an Important Assumption in Many Spatial Statistical Analyses #6 Interpreting Spatial Statistics is both a Science and an Art Point Pattern Analysis Autocorrelation and Variography Spatial Autocorrelation Variography Cross-correlograms and Co-variograms Optimized Sampling Designs for Spatial Statistics Examples of Spatial Statistics in Landscape Ecology Selected Software Resources for Spatial Statistics Summary Discussion Questions Recommended Readings Chapter 6. Landscape Disturbance Dynamics Disturbance and Disturbance Regimes Effects of Landscape Heterogeneity on Disturbance Landscape Position and Vulnerability to Disturbance Effects of Landscape Heterogeneity on Spread of Disturbance Landscape Epidemiology Effects of Disturbance on Landscape Heterogeneity The Disturbance-generated Mosaic Disturbance and Spatial Patterns of Succession Integrating Disturbance and Succession in Space and Time Disturbance and the Historic Range of Variability Concepts of Landscape Equilibrium Looking Ahead: Interacting Disturbances and Changing Disturbance Regimes Compound and Linked Disturbances Changes in Climate and Disturbance Regimes Summary Discussion Questions Recommended Readings Chapter 7. Organisms and Landscape Pattern Conceptual Development of Organism-Space Interactions What is Habitat? Behavioral Landscape Ecology Scale Matters Effects of Organisms on Landscape Heterogeneity Responses of Organisms to Landscape Heterogeneity General Insights, from Patch to Landscape Landscape Heterogeneity and Species Interactions Predator-prey Interactions Natural Enemies and Pollination in Agricultural Landscapes Community Structure Landscape Ecology of Species Invasions Landscape Genetics Summary Discussion Questions Recommended Readings Chapter 8. Ecosystem Processes in Heterogeneous Landscapes Conceptual Frameworks - Ecosystem Processes in Heterogeneous Landscapes Theoretical Development A Practical FrameworkPoint Processes (Vertical Fluxes) Biomass, Net Primary Production and Carbon Landscape Biogeochemistry Landscape Limnology Lateral Fluxes (Horizontal Transport) Redistribution of Litter and Organic Matter Nutrient Loading to Aquatic Ecosystems Mobile Animals and Species Interactions State of the Science: Challenges and Opportunities Summary Discussion Questions Recommended Readings Chapter 9. Landscape Dynamics in a Rapidly Changing World Landscape Indicators Climate Change Migration in Response to Climate Change Climate Effects on Disturbances Land-use Change and Landscape Scenarios Landscape Scenarios Land-use Synthesis Ecosystem Services and Landscape Sustainability Landscape Heterogeneity and Ecosystem Services Interactions Among Ecosystem Services Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity Ecosystem Services: Synthesis Summary Discussion Questions Recommended Readings Chapter 10. Conclusions and Future Directions What Has Been Learned from Landscape Ecology? Future Directions Future Directions Revisited from the 1st Edition Looking Ahead Training the Next Generation of Landscape Ecologists Conclusion Discussion Questions Recommended Readings