A complete guide to site grading for designers and other visual learners Grading With Design in Mind: Landscape Site Grading Principles is a comprehensive guide to grading, written specifically from the design perspective. Heavily illustrated and non-technical, this book meets the needs of designers and visual learners by presenting the principles and methods of site grading with less emphasis on engineering, and a strong focus on the effect on the overall aesthetic. Written by a professor in America's number-one ranked undergraduate landscape architecture program, the book guides readers step-by-step through the process of solving various grading problems in real-life scenarios. Landscape designers, landscape architects, and engineers need to have a deep understanding of site grading as the foundation of any project. Grading plans must not only solve practical requirements, but also create landforms that contribute to the aesthetic ambition of the overall site and architectural design concept.
Grading With Design in Mind takes a highly visual approach to presenting modern grading techniques and considerations, providing designers the guidance they need to become competent in site grading while understanding the design implications of the subject. Features include: * Numerous illustrations to support the text * Step-by-step examples * Professional grading plans Studying the professional grading plans helps readers better understand the real-world application of grading principles in different situations. Site grading is a complicated topic with plenty of on-site variables, but Grading with Design in Mind breaks it down into clear, concise instruction with value to both professionals and students in the field of landscape design.
Bruce Sharky, FASLA, is a Professor of Landscape Architecture at the Robert Reich School of Landscape Architecture at Louisiana State University. He served as Principal Landscape Architect for wildlife habitat and landscape restoration for the 860-mile Trans-Alaskan Oil Pipeline, and his Master's thesis at the University of California, Berkeley, was the basis for legislation that established the California Coastal Commission. Bruce's current focus is on informing design through culture and environment, and non-structural approaches to planning natural disaster-resilient communities.
Preface xi 1 Some Background on the Subject of Site Grading Site Grading Informs Design 1 Let s Begin 3 The Importance of Grading in Design 4 A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words 6 Gaining an Essential Grasp of Site-Grading Concepts 7 What the Student Needs to Know about Site Grading 9 Professional Relationships 12 The Basic Structural Approach to This Book 13 2 Site Grading and the Legal Requirements What Is Site Grading? 15 Avoiding Grading Problems in the Landscape 18 Encounters in the Field of Grading: Problems That Could Have Been Avoided 19 Site Grading in the Professional Practice of Landscape Architecture 21 Professional Registration to Practice Landscape Architecture 22 3 Site Planning and Grading Process Introduction 27 The Design Process 28 Steps in the Design Process Continuum 28 Step 1. Background Research 28 Step 2. Site Analysis 30 Step 3. Program Analysis 36 Step 4. Land Use and Circulation Diagram 38 Step 5. Schematic Site Design 40 Step 6. Schematic Design Grading Plan 42 Preliminary Site Grading Plan 45 Design Development and Subsequent Phases in the Design Continuum 47 4 Drawing Conventions Drawing Conventions: Landscape Drawings and Music Scores 49 Drafting and Representation 51 The Concept of Documentation Conventions in Music and Design 52 Following Drawing Conventions Prevents Miscommunication 56 Construction Documentation 57 Another Word about Scale 58 5 What Is Scale, Why Is It Important, and How Is It Used? Scale: A Word of Several Meanings 61 The Need for Scaled Drawings 63 Site Grading Is Integral to the Phases of Design 64 Using and Choosing the Right Scale 65 Reference Plan and Match Lines 66 Architect s and Engineer s Scales 68 Topographic Maps Are Useful Preplanning Tools 69 Map Scales and Contour Intervals 72 Recognizing Landform Patterns 73 The Information Contained in Topographic Maps 74 U.S. Geological Survey and Scales of Other Countries 75 6 Where Are You? The Language of Maps 77 How to Find and Locate Places in the Landscape, or: Where Am I? 78 Maps Serve a Variety of Purposes 82 Coordinate Systems 82 Latitude and Longitude: A Geographic Coordinate System 82 Referencing System for a Land Parcel 86 Licensed Land Surveyor 87 Locating a Building or Other Element on the Ground 88 7 Contours Introduction 91 Reading the Landscape 92 Contour Lines: A Language for Two Dimensions 93 What the Landscape Would Look Like with Contours 94 Contours Explained 100 Slope in Plan and Section 104 8 Signature Landforms Landform Signatures 109 Watershed Landform Signature 112 Putting It All Together 116 9 Calculating Slope and Other Grading Calculations: Tools for Gaining Mastery in Grading Introducing Calculation of Slope 120 A Few Slope Conventions 122 Slope Equation: Primary Tool for Most Calculations Required in Grading 124 10 How to Calculate Spot Elevations Introduction 139 When Are Spot Elevations Needed? 139 Where Spot Elevations Are Necessary 142 Overview for the Grading Conditions Discussion 150 How Spot Elevations Are Used by Contractors 151 How to Calculate a Spot Elevation 151 The Steps for Establishing Spot Elevations on a Sloping Surface 154 Using the Riser Height of Steps to Calculate Spot Elevations 156 Use of Spot Elevations in Grading Plans 156 Coordination of Spot Elevations with Other Elevation Conventions 157 How a Contractor Uses Spot Elevations Shown on a Grading Plan 159 From Schematic Design Plan to Grading Plan 160 11 Working with Contours: Creating Landforms with Design in Mind Creating Landscapes Using Contours 164 Getting from the Site and the Design to Grading the Site 166 Contours Used to Show Landform 169 Creating Landforms for Programmed Uses 170 Contours Used to Show Surface Drainage 174 Paved Surfaces Water Flow 178 How to Create a Level Area on Sloping Ground 180 12 Signature Solutions Introduction 185 Signature Grading Solutions 186 Creating a Simple Slope 186 Creating a Level Area on Sloping Ground 188 Signature Solution: Creating a Sloping Surface 189 Creating a Swale around a Level Surface to Direct Surface Water Flow Away from a Building or Activity Area 192 Creating a Drainage Swale 195 Creating a Watershed to Collect Surface Water 198 Catch Basin Design in Paved Area 199 Creating a Sculpted Landform 200 Creating a Detention Pond or Depression 203 Site-Grading Concepts for a Simple Residential Lot 204 Three Initial Site-Grading Strategies 204 Use of Spot Elevations and Contour Grading for a Tennis Court or Other Large Court-Game Surface 206 13 Detailed Grading with Slopes, Contours, and Spot Elevations Introduction 211 Grading of Paved Surfaces: Walks and Ramps 212 Design Process for Grading a Pedestrian Ramp 213 Design Process for Grading a Bicycle Trail and Park Walkway 215 Integration of Walkway, Steps, and Seating Area 217 Grading Design Where Paved Area Meets Building Entrance Accessible by Stairs 218 Parking Lot Grading Design 218 Site-Grading Design in Lawn Area 222 Sculptural Landform Solutions in Lawn or Landscaped Areas 223 Some Final Examples of Using Spot Elevations and Contours in Site-Grading Design 225 Construction Sequence for a Bus Shelter 227 14 Storm and Surface Water Drainage Management Introduction 231 Traditional Handling of Surface Storm Water 235 Contour Grading 236 Design Options for Handling Storm Water 239 Catch Basins 239 Canals and Swales 244 Roadside Drainage Swale 245 Aquifer Recharge 246 Retention Ponds 248 Water Detention Swale 250 Rain Garden and Related Water Storage or Absorption Strategies 253 Town Planning That Incorporates Sustainable Storm Water Management 255 15 Estimating Volume of Cut and Fill Using Contour Method Cut and Fill Is the Process of Earth Moving. 257 Introduction to Estimating Earth-Moving Quantities 259 Contour Method for Estimating Cut and Fill 261 Other Methods of Estimating Earthwork Volumes 265 16 Professional Example of Site Grading by Design Introduction 267 References 297 Index 298